INTERROGATING NEW WORLDS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
24-25 February 2012
Department of English, Maharaja Ganga Singh University, Bikaner
English Language Teaching Institute, IASE, Bikaner
English is a lingua franca, a language used locally and internationally, not only among the native speakers but by anyone wishing to activate his or her role as a member of an international communicative network. And to be teacher of English today is to play an inevitable part in this globalizing enterprise, to recognize new areas for inquiry now raised perhaps for the first time in the long history of ELT.
The purpose of the symposium, therefore, is to canvass some of the major themes and questions challenging the new worlds of ELT. The questions, besides being the points of departure, are also the points of convergence for discussion, reflection and interacting among teachers of English; they are the starting points for action research explorations of our local teaching context as a microcosm of a globalized teaching endeavour.
Resource Persons/Experts are requested to send the abstracts or their plenary/paper presentation /key note address/valedictory address to firstname.lastname@example.org by 5 February 2012 addressing the following sub themes:
· Whose Language? (Inner/Outer/Expanding Circles English/es)
· Which Speakers? (Native/Non-native debate)
· Which Standard? (International/British/American etc)
· Which Teachers? (Native/Non-native)
· Which Approaches? (Traditional/Communicative Language Teaching)
· Which Texts? (Traditional and new forms of Literacy)
Abstract not exceeding three hundred words, should contain the following:
(a) Name, affiliation, e-mail address and telephone/mobile nos.
(b) Sub-theme chosen
(d) Bio-data of the presenter (in 50 words)
Intimation of acceptance of abstracts will be conveyed by 10th Feb, 2012.
Issue : 4 Annual Publication March : 2010
Articles for online reading
From Pro VC's Desk
There is a tremendous need for English today in
I wish every success to the District Centre of Bikaner in their endeavour.
Bhaskar A. Sawant IAS
Secondary Education, Rajasthan
Dr. Meera Srinivas Ms. Revati Srinivas
Uma Kant Ojha
Principal and Nodal Officer, Govt IASE,
Joint Director (Training and Admn.) secondary Education, Rajasthan,
Dean, Department of Education,
DD (Secondary) Churu
DEO (Sec), Churu
DEO (Sec), Sri Ganganagar
DEO (Sec), Hanumangarh
DEO (Sec) Jhunjhnun
Ram Gopal Sharma
Chief Resource Person
District Centre for English
Ms. Yashoda Khatri
District Centre for English
Prof. Madhu Agarwal, IASE,
Rameshwar lal Basera, Reader, Bikaner
Ram Dev Ojha, Junior Accountant
Sushil Kumar Vyas, Senior Librarian
Manglesh Bhargav, Cashier
Mohini Devi, attendant
Secondary Education Rajasthan
From the Director's Desk
Today's educational environment is characterized by powerful changes and developments in technology, teaching techniques and skills together with major social changes occurring at an enormous speed all over the world. No matter whatever and whatsoever advancement may be, but there is no alternative to a teacher. The presence of a teacher was, is and will always be indispensable. The work of the teachers, instructors in such environment is extremely challenging. Those who aspire to become 'teachers in true-sense' will need to acquire specialized knowledge, skills, techniques and attitudes. Only a technically trained teacher can successfully bring about a desired change. Undeniably, every child is the most ambitious dream of parents as well as of the nation. The entire future of the parents and of the nation rests on how its younger generation launches itself in life. It's only the education on which one can pin his hopes and aspirations in order to win laurels and glory in a cut- throat competitive world.
In the present age, the knowledge and command of English has become one of the effective primary tools for advancement. Learning of English seems to be a tedious task among the students. The proper knowledge, usage and spoken aspect are considered difficult to cope with. However, this drawback and inefficiency in teaching and learning of English may be made easier if it is linked together with the child's home language .obviously a child is seldom taught his first language with a written script at the initial level. It's the environment which plays a pivotal role in their linguistic development. What the present education demands is that the teachers should develop a learning environment which can facilitate learning and they should use specific skills to make the children understand English (L2) in a better and more important grasping way.
In this regard it is pertinent to mention that the Government IASE,
I feel highly delighted and pleased to find that till date the DCE has successfully organized 25 Orientation Programmes, 11 Need-Based Courses and 52 teachers have completed one year correspondence course (CTE). In addition to this, the RPs of the DCE have visited many schools of the district. The DCE has been successful in the achievement of its objectives and made a remarkable progress as a' Resource Centre' of this region.
I am glad to mention that the English and
I would greatly appreciate the sincere effort of Mr. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person and his faculty for bringing forth this journal and keeping the entire community informed as well as up-dated with the recent developments and initiatives undertaken at the Resource Centre.
I wish the District Centre for English greater success in future.
(BHASKAR A. SAWANT)
There is a growing demand for proficiency development as well as professional development of English teachers in the light of the development. The District Centre for English has been organizing various teacher training programmes- the 10-day Orientation Programmes and Need-based Courses are offered in the face to face mode and the Certificate Course in Teaching English through the distance mode, in the area since its inception in order to produce specialized teachers who are professionally competent for teaching English.
I am happy to mention that the DCE has successfully conducted all the programmes and got excellent feedback from the teachers as well as the concerned authority. Apart from the regular training programmes, the DCE undertakes various other activities like conducting the ELT seminars and publishing the ELT Journal.
The fourth volume of the Journal having practical ideas for the teachers is in your hand. I hope it will help the teachers in their real classroom teaching and also provide them to read and interact with their fellow teachers as well as ELT experts.
I would like to thank the authority of District Centre Scheme, English and
I wish the District Centre for English all the success in its endeavour.
(UMA KANT OJHA)
Principal and Nodal Officer, DCE, IASE,
Joint Director (Training and Admn.), Secondary Education
Dean, Department of Education,
DISTRICT CENTRE SCHEME
MESSAGE TO DCE,
The primary objective of the DCE Scheme is to provide opportunity to teachers to grow and develop professionally by promoting collaborative learning and teacher development programmes. Programmes must build on the principle of creating ‘spaces’ for sharing of experiences of communities of teachers among themselves, to build stronger shared professional basis of individual experiences and ideas. Giving teachers a space to develop and hear their own voices is of utmost importance.
In this context DCE Bikaner has been doing commendable work by organizing training programmes and seminars regularly and providing a platform for ELT practitioners to share their ideas, experiences and classroom practices through the newsletter. In recognition of the work done by DCE Bikaner, the District Centre Scheme has plans to start new DCEs in Rajasthan with support from the State government.
On behalf of the District Centre Scheme, I wish DCE Bikaner all success in the year 2010-2011 and hope that the Centre will contribute substantially in improving the quality of English teaching in the state.
Dr. Meera Srinivas
The English and Foreign
English Language Teaching tradition has been subjected to tremendous changes during the last Century. Now it is considered that a language is not a system of unchanging rigid rules. It is a live medium of communication.
It is in this context that we should at orientating the teachers towards the new techniques, methods and approaches through various programmes including Orientation Programmes and Need-based Courses through face to face mode and offering Certificate in the Teaching English through distance mode and working as a resource Centre to provide the teachers with materials which should be useful for classroom teaching learning process.
We are proud of our ties with
We have been trying our level best to orient the teachers towards new trends in ELT and help school learners in learning English in a more meaningful and communicative manner. The present issue of the DC Journal is somewhat different from previous regular issues in that it offers the language teachers and trainers a readable comprehensive text on language learning issue.
I wish to put on record my indebtedness to Prof. Abhay Morya, Vice Chancellor , Prof. Maya Pandit, Pro VC , Dr. Meera Srinivas, All India coordinator , for their blessings on this project. I am extremely grateful to Ms Revati Srinivas Asst. AIC and DCS staff for their kind support, guidance and help. I am greatly thankful to Dr. Saryug Yadav,NCERT, Dr. Kirti Kapur,NCERT, Dr. A.K. Paliwal,VBCTE,Udaipur , Dr. Jitendra Sharma,SGKCTE,Jodhpur, Dr. Ashok Bhatnagar,Udaipur for their inspiration and guidance for the DC activities and programmes.
I have no words to thank Shri . Bhaskar A. Sawant, IAS, Director, Secondary Education,Rajasthan and Shri . Uma Kant Ojha, Nodal Officer,IASEs,Rajasthan, for their constant guidance, motivation and support for the DCE project. Without their cooperation, we would not have been successful in what we have done in the field of ELT in Rajasthan so far.
Last but not least, I wish to give a big ‘thank you’ to all the resource persons of the DCEs , the teachers and scholars for making our programmes a huge success. We are looking forward to getting full academic as well as pedagogic support from all those who want to contribute to the culture of excellence. It would, therefore, be an added pleasure for us to get your feedback on our programmes and contributions in future.
I hope this issue of the Journal would stimulate our individual and collective thinking on various aspects of ELT in the Indian context.
Ram Gopal Sharma
Chief Resource Person
Language AssessmentDr. Kirti Kapur NCERT ,DELHI
Assessment must serve, motivate and not discourage or demoralize the students. We must remember that assessment-feedback directly or indirectly affects the lives of the students. The aim is to serve the students’ interest by guiding them properly and also by providing meaningful inputs. Assessment is also a means to provide constant feedback to the learner to make the course effective. And while doing so special care must be taken to ensure that it is humane and it enables the learner to grow into a responsible and productive citizen.
The present system of assessment and evaluation for school education is exam based. Therefore, it focuses only on cognitive learning outcomes and in the process co-curricular domains are neglected, even though we all appreciate the fact that co-curricular areas are equally important and significant part of child development. Even in curricular areas the focus is on rote learning and memorization thereby neglecting higher mental abilities such as critical thinking, problem solving and creative ability.
The need of the hour is to help our young learners to become innovative problem-solvers and not rote-learners. However, the present system of examination is inflexible. It is based on a ‘one -size -fits -all’ principle, wherein the individuality and creativity of the learner are not taken into account. There is a failure to measure the real potential of the learners, and the marks awarded to the students are raw marks which do not give a real picture of the learners. The pattern followed in the school leaving exams is followed even in schools and the emphasis is on scores thereby defeating the whole purpose of education. This has taken a toll on the pedagogical principles of teaching and learning.
The National Curriculum Framework 2005 has proposed some guiding principles for school education, which are:
• connecting knowledge to life outside the school,
• ensuring that learning is shifted away from rote methods,
• enriching the curriculum to provide for overall development of children rather than remain textbook centric,
• making examinations more flexible and integrated into classroom life and,
• nurturing an over-riding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic polity of the country. (National Curriculum Framework 2005, p. 5)
These guiding principles show a major shift in the approach towards teaching and learning, as compared to the traditional methods i.e. a shift from behaviorism to constructivism. The new approach to teaching is learner-centered and the process of assessment also aims at enhancing the learning capabilities of the learner by taking in to cognizance their overall progress. This shift in approach, in itself requires a major change in assessment tools and techniques as well.
Language learning and teaching has undergone rapid changes in the late twentieth century and as a result language teaching assessment and evaluation have always remained an area of concern. This in turn has had a direct implication on curriculum and syllabus design, language teaching methodologies, materials and teacher preparedness. Changes in assessment have become imperative. To improve language assessment, we need to appreciate the fact that it is not only the language which is being assessed, but the process of assessing is equally important. More specifically, questions that need reflection are, how does one learn languages and its parameters for assessment?
Assessment can be Summative, Formative or Diagnostic. Summative assessment is usually carried out at the end of a course or academic session to assign the students’ grades. It involves judging overall competence and sometimes assigning grades, levels or scores to individual pupils. Formative assessment is usually carried out throughout the academic session and is also known as educative assessment. The main purpose of this kind of assessment is to aid the process of teaching and learning. This can be done by teachers as well as peers of the learner by providing feedback on a student’s work. The feedback may not necessarily be used for grading purposes. A number of researches have shown that formative assessment has a strong impact on children’s progress in primary and early years’ settings (McCallum, 2000). Diagnostic assessment is part of formative assessment. The purpose of diagnostic assessment is to measure a student’s current knowledge and skills to identify an appropriate course or syllabus or materials for learning. It is also used to develop an in-depth analysis of a learner’s difficulties and needs in a specific area and is followed by appropriate educational support and guidance. Then there are proficiency tests and achievement tests. Proficiency tests are used to measure an individual’s general competence in second language. They can be independent of any curriculum or course and may directly or indirectly assess skills. Achievement tests are closely related to the curriculum and they only test what has been taught. The purpose of an achievement test is to evaluate the students’ acquisition of certain, specified course content.
Assessment which promotes learning is characterised by the following:
In language teaching a test must be seen as an extension of class work. The three types of test normally conducted are:
a) Aptitude tests – Used to measure a learner’s aptitude for foreign/second language.
b) Criterion-referenced tests – Diagnostic and achievement tests. These tests report on the learner’s progress in learning and help gauge how successful learners have been in attaining the objective laid down at the beginning of the course.
c) Norm-referenced tests – A test of global language abilities. Most of the placement and proficiency tests are norm-referenced tests. The aim of a proficiency test is to assess the learner’s ability to apply in actual situations what they have learned and to find out whether the learner has reached a certain standard in relation to specific abilities.
(NFG – Teaching of Indian languages, 2006, p. 29)
In a language classroom different strategies/methodologies can be used to evaluate the learners. Evaluations can be done through oral presentations, peer assessment, portfolios, projects, activities, discussions etc. ‘Language evaluation need not be limited to ‘achievement’ with respect to particular syllabi, but must be reoriented to measurement of ‘language proficiency.’ (Pg.15, NFG – Teaching of English) NCF – 2005 has advocated continuous and comprehensive assessment of the learners. Assessment should be an ongoing process, wherein the teacher starts assessing the learner from the very first day of their interaction.
An English language classroom (second language learning) advocates a classroom situation where the learners are exposed to a variety of texts, and an input rich communicational environment is created through activities and real life situations. Learners are actively involved in the process of language learning and the assessment of language skills should reflect the underlying goals and objectives of the course/syllabus. Since language proficiency is viewed as central to all aspects of education, evaluation of the learners must be based on the assessment of both basic understanding of the language principles and communicative skills/language proficiency.
In language teaching all the four skills – listening, speaking, reading and writing – should be taught in a holistic manner, but the present system focuses only on testing writing skills. Present assessment techniques have not been developed with a holistic perspective. All the four language skills should be assessed in a variety of ways. And as Pauline Chater states in Marking and Assessment in English “It is pointless giving pupils wide experience in reading, writing, listening and speaking if we only assess their writing.” (Chater, Pauline, 1984, p. 3)
The aims and objectives of language learning are an integral part of assessment.
Assessment should help the learners move beyond their ability by providing them with constructive feedback about their strengths and weaknesses. Assessment cannot stand by itself and any language assessment should give students an opportunity to demonstrate what they know and can do with language such as reflecting on their own reading, writing in productive ways, evaluating their own intellectual growth, and setting goals.
Through constant interaction with students, teachers can assess the learner’s work and the wide range of work presented by different students makes the assessment easier. Assessment for better learning can take various forms such as:
Self assessment, which enables students to monitor their own progress against specific objectives and evidence from their own work.
Peer assessment, which helps to improve learning and to develop social and cooperative skills. Teacher's assessment, in which progress and strengths are recognised, difficulties diagnosed and strategies to overcome them planned.
These can be achieved through the method of Portfolio Assessment. A portfolio is a collection of written tasks over a period of time rather than a single writing sample. This shows the stages of writing and can help the students reflect upon their work and hence improve it.
Hamp-Lyons and Condon (2000) have given nine characteristics that are present to a greater or lesser degree in portfolios
(Weigle, Sara C. 2002, p. 199)
Portfolios provide a meaningful view of a student’s progress in learning. The concept of portfolio preparation should be thoroughly discussed with the students so that they understand the purpose of the portfolio. It is like any other form of writing assessment. The factors integral to the designing of a portfolio include the purpose, content, scoring system and the overheads involved. The evaluation of the process of learning is more important that simply evaluating the end product. Portfolios can be evaluated by peers or self evaluation or by the teacher.
By following the methods that we’ve just seen one can ensure better participation on the part of the learner. He/She will feel involved in the whole process of learning. This in itself is important because till date the learner has been perceived as a passive receiver of knowledge. We must remember at all times that a child is an active learner and is also capable of evaluating his/her own intellectual growth and has the ability to set individual goals.
In the context of a language classroom one should encourage the learners to come out with different answers. There is no right or wrong answer. The criteria for assessment should be that the answer is presented in a logical and coherent manner and the language is used appropriately with correct grammar, spelling and pronunciation. Uniformity in answers should not be demanded, learning should be less judgmental and value-laden and more directed to the process of learning. Questions framed should be such that they represent real-life situations, are open-ended and extrapolatory. Multiple representations or meanings of texts should be encouraged. Also, questions that encourage multiple answers are indicators of literacy achievement. Different opinions, creativity of thought and expression should be encouraged. Providing students with an opportunity to present their own thinking and perspectives will help them become confident users of the target language as well.
By providing an input rich communicational environment the teachers can ensure that the learners get ample opportunities to listen to the language and speak in the target language. They can get an intrinsic sense of language growth in the child by continuous interaction with the learners and this can be recorded in the form of an entry (as a comment) that is maintained for each child. These can then serve as records wherein teachers can note the growth of the learner and also monitor his/her progress. At a later stage, speaking can be analyzed into sub-skills for testing.
J.C. Alderson in Assessing Reading states, “It is important to understand that there is no one ‘best method’ for testing reading. No single test method can fulfill all the varied purposes for which we might test.” (2000, p. 203) However, it is suggested that there are certain techniques, for example, the close procedure, gap filling tests, multiple matching, multiple choice questions, ordering tasks, editing tests, short answer tests that can be used testing reading. Reading evaluation will also vary from stage to stage. Some of the sub-skills of reading are; reading aloud, scanning a text, reading for given information, reading for inference and extended reading. The evaluation of those sub-skills will depend on the age and cognitive development of the learner.
Performance based assessment can be used as a tool for information instruction, to reinforce reading comprehension; and student self-monitoring and self-assessment. Assessing the academic achievement of every student is a necessary form of reform and this is a challenge faced by all the teachers, especially for students who learn English as a second language. Hence, oral testing and group work evaluation should be encouraged. Instead of giving marks or grades, the teacher should maintain a record of their assessment in the form of remarks.
The testing of writing and listening can similarly be broken up into sub-skills. A sub-skill approach to evaluation reflects the teacher’s intuitions that different students will have different strengths and weaknesses. Some may be good at writing skills and some may be articulate speakers or good at comprehension. The teacher can identify areas of strength as well as areas where help is needed. (NFG – Teaching of English, 2006, p. 17)
To make assessment useful and worthwhile for the learners, teachers need to be oriented. They need to be made aware of the fact that the development of language is directly linked with the learner’s development as a person and hence the evaluation of the learner should be based on the assessment of both linguistic knowledge and communicative skills.
NCF 2005 states that the purpose of education can be achieved only if the teacher is prepared even before the course of teaching begins. While teacher autonomy is important, it is also necessary that teachers keep the objectives of the curriculum in mind and align those with meaningful and constructive assessment. The curriculum objective can only act as a guide. Teachers need to exercise professional judgement based on the age, interest and cognitive ability of the learners and handle any particular piece of work accordingly. They need to remember that the main aim is to improve learning. Teachers should be flexible and sensitive towards children with limited proficiency. Bilingual children should be given an opportunity to express themselves in the language they know and then gradually encouraged to switch over to the target language. Also, in reporting achievement to students or parents, the focus should be on the achievement level so that it can be used as a key indicator for the next level.
Assessment is not only important for learners, but it is equally valuable for the teachers as it can help them identify individual and special needs, requirements and interests of the learners. Teachers can then plan teaching and learning situations in a more suitable way. They can observe the changes and progress that have taken place in the learner over a period of time, assess the learner and accordingly make improvisations in the curriculum. The most vital thing being that the fear of assessment in children is reduced and they perform better.
India is a multilingual and multicultural country and children are active and autonomous language learners and use language in different contexts. It is important to ensure that assessment tasks are purposeful and motivating for children keeping in view the large repertoire and registers of ability in their mother tongue that they bring with them to the classroom. Hence, assessment in the second language should not be a demoralizing factor for them. We need to appreciate the fact that language cuts across the curriculum and language can be assessed in any subject area as long as assessment focuses on speaking, listening, reading or writing.
We must remember that assessment should facilitate the process of learning. Constructive and effective feedback should be an integral part of the learning process and assessment. While assessing the learners the objectives of language learning should always be kept in mind. A well balanced combination of the traditional, innovative, formative and summative assessments can enhance the teaching and learning processes. Assessment should be such that it should enable the learner to reflect on his/her own learning and thus improve. Another important factor is timelessness. If information from assessment is not provided immediately it will not be useful, it’ll become a useless, time consuming activity on the part of the teacher. Assessment should give high-quality feedback, thereby helping the students to give their best. If the student cannot use the information given through assessment then the whole purpose of assessment is defeated.
Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 203
Chater, Pauline. (1984). Marking and assessment in English. London: Routledge, 3
Hamp-Lyons, L. and Condon, W. (2000). Assessing the portfolio: Principles for practice theory and research. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 32-33.
McCallum, B. (2000). Formative Assessment: Implications for Classroom Practice.
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). (2006). National Focus Group on Teaching of English. Position Paper. New Delhi: NCERT, 1-18
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). (2006) National Focus Group on Teaching of Indian Languages. Position Paper. New Delhi: NCERT, 14-22, 30-32
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). (2005). National Curriculum Framework 2005. New Delhi: NCERT, 5
Dr. Saryug Yadav
Reader in English
RIE (NCERT) Ajmer, Rajasthan
The standard of English is going down is an oft repeated statement by teachers, parents, educators, experts and perhaps by students too. What is the reason for this? The craze for English medium schools is so high in our country, but still the students are finding it difficult to learn English. There is no scope for improvement of basic skills. Writing and reading of textual material are introduced before children learn to listen and speak English. This approach, as a matter of fact, defeats the very purpose of teaching English as a living language. Grammar- translation method is generally practiced in all the classes where English is taught as a second language. Students study English in schools for eight years, but in fact, they are drilled for less than two months. Positive feedback for academic performance is nil. Teachers are seldom aware of their students’ abilities. In most of the schools in Hindi-speaking areas class examination and internal assessment reflect the low academic standard of English. Cramming of set questions from the texts and dictated answers are very common among the students learning English as a second language In schools, English is nowhere taught as a language. English teachers feel that their only task is to translate English lessons into Hindi. No importance is given to basic language skills. Consequentially, the students indulge in translation from Hindi into English, instead of thinking in English. The existing grammar translation method of teaching English ultimately deprives the young learners of the natural way of learning a second language.
Consequently, learning English ultimately turns out to be a frustrating experience. Learning spoken English is a great problem, which is made more complicated by the inconsistent spelling system of English. English is learnt neither in contact nor in context. The student seldom gets an opportunity to use English in a meaningful situation. The present paper is an attempt to examine the scope and feasibility of using stories and drama as effective source for teaching English language to Hindi speaking students to whom English is taught as second language. While discussing the pedagogy of teaching language through literature, this paper also addresses some of the aspects of selection and exploitation of literary texts for teaching English.
Why Literature in a Language classroom?
There is an intimate relationship between language and literature. Literature is very old, as old as human language. When man had a considerable number of words at his command, he tried to arrange them in such a way as to create the maximum appeal. He listened to the song of the birds, whistling in the wind and the rippling sound of the rivulets, and tried to catch the music and the rhythm, and created them through his words, and thus poetry was born. Language is virtually blood and bone of literature. Literature is a thing of beauty, because it has the beauty of language, beauty of form, beauty of thoughts and beauty of feelings. It goes without saying that literature is a specialized use of language of unusual collocation. Literature is a superior kind of amusement. Language is used in every subject but it is the literature, which provides the most suitable context, where language can be used at its best. Discovery of language through literature is a great feat. Poetry, prose and drama are potent sources not only for refining our literary and aesthetic sensibility but also for improving our linguistic abilities. Literature appeals to the heart of every person whatever his/her profession may be as it possesses something which is of common interest and very close to the heart and mind of an individual. Literature pleases every human being because it manifests the social and cultural identity of a person. It has often been observed that children are very fond of listening and reading stories or reciting rhymes or enacting plays. Children find a good piece of literature (short story or drama) very interesting and they enjoy both listening as well as reading.
Why should a language teacher use literary texts in classes?
What sort of literature is suitable for use with language learners? The criterion of suitability clearly depends on each particular group of students, their needs, interests, cultural background and language level. Attention should be paid to this point that those stories and dramas should be used, which can stimulate learners’ personal involvement by arousing their interest and positive reactions. Then it will give a meaningful context for the learners to learn the language.
In a traditional classroom the teacher imparted information but efforts should be paid to maintain interest and involvement of the students by using a variety of student- centered activities (role play, creative writing, discussion, etc.). Learner’s resources of knowledge and experience within the group should be tapped (through pair work, group work) to help students to explore their own responses to literature, which will help them to acquire the confidence to develop, express and value their own responses. Therefore, it would make them less dependent on received opinions and would make them interested in other relevant perspectives.
Teaching English through Stories
From the ancient time story- telling both in prose and verse has been very popular in our country. All persons from young children to oldest persons in the family or society love to listen to stories. In fact, stories are great energizers. Story telling is an art, which easily appeals all kinds of readers or listeners because thematically they deal with some significant issues of our life. It is worthwhile to mention that stories told and read at home and school both entertain and educate young children. Stories whether they are fairy tales, folk tales, legends, tables, or are based on real-life situations experienced by students themselves can motivate the learners to appreciate and respect the culture and the values of various groups. These stories nurture the transformative powers of education.
As a matter of fact, there is a strong support for story telling in pedagogical theory. Cortazzi (1994) observes that story telling is fundamental to education and specially to language teaching. Zipes (1995) and Morgan and Rinvolucri (1992) find stories a basic part of the whole language approach to learning, reaching “the whole person” and appealing to the subconscious. Reading or telling stories in a class is a natural way to learn a new language, says Brumfit and Johnson (1979). Joseph Campbell (1987) rightly points out that the themes of folk stories and myths are universal in appeal; people everywhere appreciate tales/love stories from other groups, even if they are not from the culture of the listeners. But the fact remains that students feel very happy and self-esteemed when they find that a story has been taken from their own part of the world.
Stories are fun, interesting and educative. Using stories in the English language classroom is an old technique but at the same time very useful in communicative approach. Stories give us enough scope to do a lot of pair-works and group-works that are absolutely necessary for teaching and learning English.
Storytelling helps the students a lot with their listening and speaking skills. Storytelling can be a receptive skill and can also be changed into a productive one. This method is applicable to all English classes with different students and levels. Stories keep children engaged and let them feel that they are also participating in the process of story telling. Language learning, any learning for that matter, happens when children are engaged in meaning making activities. If story telling is made into an exciting experience and fun- filled activity where the listeners also participate in telling, guessing, manipulating, it could be a happy learning experience.
Stories use a holistic approach to language teaching and stories support natural acquisition of language. language is learnt in contexts and in chunks, not in isolation, word by word or sentence by sentence. Stories are meaningful inputs i.e. comprehensible inputs (Krashen 1985) that children receive as they listen to and tell stories. Comprehensible input refers to the language given to children just above the level of their present language competence. This helps them get engaged and motivate them to understand and find out the new words, structures and make meaning out of the input.
Stories develop in children an understanding about other cultures. Stories help children develop critical thinking. Above all, children love stories. Stories along with pictures have added utility in making the learning exercise all the more interesting and easy. Stories with illustrations provide a creative and artistic learning environment, which children respond to. It provides an ideal context for literacy practice as well as linguistic acquisition. Supporting visual literacy is important in order to help children take meaning from text as well as develop aesthetic understanding. Providing information through pictures is a vital and fast developing method of communication in the global world.
Not only this but it helps in reinforcement of social values through stories. In words of Mario Rinvolucri “story telling is a uniquely powerful linguistic and psychological technique in the hands of a language teacher which s/he can use with people of any culture (though the story needs to be culturally appropriate) and with people of virtually any age.”
Students all over the world appreciate stories as culture-bearers because culture of the respective country/community/society is vividly manifested in stories of a particular nation or society. Even when writing did not come into existence, oral literature in the form of story has been both a form of entertainment and a way of passing the knowledge, traditions and the customs of the community from one generation to another.
In our country, in most of the schools there is a shortage of teaching of learning resources, which affect the quality of education in a big way. In such a situation, teachers can use stories to teach English effectively. Even in the absence of books story telling or reading can enable teachers to manage large classes such as 60-100 pupil classes seen in most of the schools in India. Teachers can exploit stories, enhancing them by using simple objects, to promote the basic skills of English (LSRW) in students who learn English as second language.
which type of stories?
Teachers should carefully select stories before planning to take them up in the classroom. The following points should be kept in mind: Find stories that children will like. Stories that match their age and language level. Choose stories you like. Choose stories with simple structures. Choose stories with positive values Avoid didactic stories. Stories should be easy for children to understand and analyze actions, characters, ideas, and themes in them and make a judgment expressing their own opinions.
According to Pederson those stories should be taught in class, which relate to children’s daily life and their thinking, curiosity and interest. For lower levels it's good to have stories in which structures are repeated, rhyme- based text. If the story is right for their developmental level and their interests, children soon know the story by heart and can repeat it with pride.
All types of stories- fairy tales, folk stories, fables as well as pictures, children’s books, nursery rhymes etc. should be collected. The reason for using the stories related to the children’s culture is that they may know the stories in their native language and this will help in promoting comprehension and understanding as well as self esteem among the learner.
What with stories?
A story-based approach to teaching English is acquisition based, working on the learner's pre-knowledge and taking meaning from context.
A learning cycle can be applied to each lesson in this manner:
1. Using illustration
pictures help the child understand and visualize the story. They can be used to introduce the story, elicit vocabulary they know, introduce difficult words in that story, and generally excite the interest of the child for the story.
2. Pre-teaching vocabulary
we can choose stories related to a topic. The vocabulary can be taught first. For example, an animal story can be selected to teach names of animals.
One should review language in the story, which children already know and therefore it gives an idea of the new vocabulary or expressions that needs to be taught.
3. Introduce the theme
Many of the stories are related to a topic. It can be a good idea to familiarize learners with the topic before reading, by trying activities related to the topic on the site, by setting a task to find out about the topic (this could even be for homework), or by discussion (in your own language with lower level learners if you like).
Teacher should endeavor to capture children’s attention by connecting stories to learners’ prior knowledge and experiences. Have children predict what will happen in the story. Give them a purpose for listening.
Storytelling with objects: divide learners into groups of three to five and distribute four to five objects to each group. Objects should be familiar to the learners. They may include such as toys, spoons, cups, pens, books etc. After distributing objects to each group, ask every group to make up/ construct a story that includes all of their objects. First, model the activity by choosing five objects from the box of objects (e.g. a car, a spoon, a girl, a banana, a monkey). Then tell the students an impromptu story, which might go like this: “A long time ago a girl was walking along a road carrying a spoon and a banana. A fast car passed by her. She was scared. She dropped the banana and the spoon and ran into trees. When she came back, she saw the monkey eating the banana with the spoon. She laughed at the monkey”.
Activities during reading or telling a story
1. Use a variety of ways to read
There are many different ways to approach the story. It is quite likely that younger learners will want to read/hear/or listen to the story. This should not be discouraged as it helps learners to equate oral and written forms, which are important for the development of reading skills. In the classroom it is important to vary the kind of reading. The teacher could read the whole or parts of the story to a class with the text. The learners can read by themselves silently. Some stories can be read as texts with illustrations.
2. Sustaining reading
If the story is very long then it is important to keep the class motivated to read. The teacher could stop at convenient points and ask the class ‘what happens next?' When children are asked to predict it interests them all the more to read the end of the story and find out if their own idea is correct. It can be done as a ‘guessing game'. It gives them a purpose in listening or reading.
3. Total Physical Response
With very young or active learners the story can be mimed while the teacher reads or the children listen.
4. Characters and voices
Stories have a lot of characters. Students can read the dialogue of the characters. The teacher should read the dialogue of characters in different voices first.
5. Miming Practice
Students learn gestures to go with words that are repeated in a story. Then, as the teacher reads the story aloud, the children do the actions when they hear the key words. Select a story with repeated words such as the story of The Big Cat in the Big House :Once upon a time there lived a big cat in a big house. The big cat had long black hair and a very long, long tail. The cat was very happy that it was very big. Next door to the big cat there lived a small mouse in a small house. The mouse was very small and so was its house. The small mouse was very sad that it was very, very small. Teach students gestures for the repeated words. Slowly read the story aloud, and have students do the appropriate gestures as they hear each repeated word.
Post -Story Telling Activities
The following activities and tasks would enrich the experiences of children after listening to the story.
1.Quick Comprehension Check
Either at the end of the story or at the end of each page a quick comprehension check can be done. This may take the form of a few ‘gist' questions about the text in oral form or in written form.
2.Make a Poster/illustrate the Story
stories can be used for some creative drawing and illustration.
3. Stimulus for writing
Many stories even provide stimulus for creative writing, depending on the level of your learners. Students could use one of the simpler stories as a model for a story of their own. Or students can be asked to write a letter to a character in a story, write diary entries for a character in a story, etc.
4. Role-play/acting out
Students can be asked to role-play based on the story. At the simplest level children can do basic actions, then speak or improvise dialogue. Stories and story telling serve as an important input for enhancing language learning in the classroom. Teachers need to know how to select a story and the various techniques of telling a story and enabling children to be storytellers in an interactive way.
5.Games around Stories
Write down the names of different characters from stories that the students have been reading. The name of one character should be written on each card. Each student selects a card, and then writes a few sentences from the point of view of the character. The student then reads the sentences aloud, using the mannerism, tone of voice, etc. of the selected character. The rest of the class guesses who the character is.
Thus a storybook can be exploited in various ways. While preparing for a course a teacher needs to reflect on the learning objectives. Identify grammatical structures and functions. Group the lexical themes. Identify rhyme and spelling patterns as well as idiomatic language
Using Drama to teach English
Drama is a walking and talking art. It is concerned with both the product and the process of language learning. Dramatization is the soul of a dramatic text. Dramatizing means that the children become actively involved in a text. This personalization makes language more meaningful and memorable than mechanical drilling or repetition.
In fact, English is not just words, structures and idioms, but it is a lively, dramatic and versatile means of communication. Drama offers an excellent opportunity for students to develop fluency in English. It helps children to activate language and have fun. Using drama activities has obvious advantages for language learning. It encourages children to speak and gives them the change to communicate, even with limited language, using non-verbal communication, such as body movements and facial expressions. The use of drama can reduce the pressure that students feel, so they become ready to talk sooner. A number of other factors also make drama a powerful tool in the language classroom. Reading dialogue aloud from a textbook is different from acting out the same dialogue. Drama involves children at many levels- through their bodies, minds, emotions, language, and social interaction.
Why should we use drama?
A great deal of our every day learning is acquired through experience and in the language classroom drama fulfills this experiential need. Few would disagree that drama has established itself as a means of helping people learn another language. When we add drama and drama activities to the language classroom, we add a very meaningful dimension to rules and vocabulary. It is important to give some definitions in order to understand exactly what is meant by the various drama-related terms in present use.
Drama is communication between people. Therefore if our students are doing dialogue work, and if they are conveying the intended meaning, as opposed to reciting the lines, they are using drama.
Theatre is communication between people for the benefit of other people, which includes play production. It is important to remember that merely reciting memorised lines and speeches is not theatre. There must be meaning conveyed-among the performers and between the performers and the audience.
Drama techniques are strategies to achieve either drama or theatre or both. They cover a wide range of activities that are useful in the language classroom. They may be verbal or non-verbal and can be designed to accomplish a variety of goals.
One of the first things to consider is the classroom atmosphere. Proper classroom atmosphere needs to be developed from the first day. In fact, classroom is a language laboratory where students experiment with the language. In all laboratories there is a great deal of trial and error and guesswork. Mistakes are expected, and help is always available from the teachers in the lab. Let the students self-introduce and also introduce others. It is necessary for teachers to use the target language-in the present case- English, but introductory session may be conducted in the students’ native language.
It is significant to mention that both actors and language learners need an atmosphere that is non-threatening during the learning and rehearsal stages- a place where mistake are considered normal and where they receive support from all around them. It is the teacher’s job to provide the students with this learning environment. The teacher is in the classroom for the security of the students, not reverse. It is the teacher’s responsibility to guide and help the students and to keep them interested and involved. Constantine Stanislavski, the great parson director, feels that relaxation is important for all actors. “Because of the artificial atmosphere of the stage”, he maintained, “in front of a mass of people an actor’s senses are often prone to paralysis” (Moore 1960:27).
Language learners often have similar feelings when they trying to communicate in a new language. This is especially true when they have learnt some structures and have a limited vocabulary. When called upon to speak, all attention is focused on them as if all spotlights were turned in their direction. Tenseness and fear of error prevent them from functioning at their best. Galway (1974:13) writes of “relaxed concerned about mistakes or what others may think of our performance.
There are other activities that help break down inhibitions and form a group feeling. Some of these may seem foolish and unsuited to a language class, but the purpose is to create the proper atmosphere. Following are some of the exercises, which may be helpful: breathing, walking, making an imaginary machine, and voice exercise. There are no rights or wrong ways of doing any of these exercises. Students should not be forced to participate, or to do them in a certain way.
There are four golden rules for teaching language through drama(Richard Via, 1988) which deserve to be discussed here.
Self refers to the individuality of all individuals. It is excellently expressed in Improvisation for the theatre (Spolin 1963:391):Self: “Refers to the natural part of ourselves, free of crippling worries, prejudices, rote information, and static forces of reference; that part of us capable of direct contact with the environment; that which is our own nature.” It may be added that self is very significant in drama. All good acting must express the feeling of an individual. A director should not tell an actor how to say a line or how to perform a particular action. This concept of self relates directly to language teaching. In oral communication we have moved beyond the idea that vocabulary plus structure equals language. One of the things that need to be added is Stanislavski’s concept of self. It is impossible for someone to be anyone else; therefore language learners need to add their own feelings and desires to any exercise if the language is to express what they wish it to express. In using drama for language teaching we want to encourage our students to express their own feelings rather than to use the role and new language to hide behind for security. It students are not expressing their own feelings, and then their conversation is meaningless.
2. The magic ‘If’
The magic ‘If’ refers to “it I were in this situation and if I said these lines, how would I say them?” this mental exercise is very useful in drama and it is directly related to the language development of an individual.
This is somewhat related to ‘the magic if’, but is concerned largely with physical surroundings. When students engage in drama activities, we should allow them time to create in their mind’s eye the kinds of clothes they whould be wearing, what the furniture might be like, and the total clear of the setting. The manner of speaking will differ according to the demands of existing physical surroundings including the person and place.
4. The Five Senses
Indisputably, ‘Self’, ‘the magic if’ and ‘imagination’ are the first three golden rules of teaching language through drama. There is one more, which ties them all together i.e. the five senses. Smith (1983:77) suggests that language learners should use five ‘senses’ when learning and using a new language. The first is the same as our first golden rule, namely, a sense of self; the others are a sense of audience, of relationship between, and of goal. In order to relate these senses to a dramatic context of language learning, we need imagination and ‘the magic if’. Smith argues that everyone uses these five senses daily when speaking the native language- in most cases without consciously thinking about them. Sometimes when learning a second or new language, however, we forget that these senses are still with us and that we can use them.
Talk and Listen
In drama it is necessary for actors to talk and listen. In everyday life we often half-listen, but we assume that what we say is fascinating to all and therefore never half-talk, which often creates a misunderstanding between speaker and the listener. When this occurs in a second language a complete communication breakdown may ensure, with disastrous results.
Listening is the key in oral communication, but often most attention is given to speaking. Everyone learns to talk, no one learns to listen, remarks a frustrated cartoon character. Many celebrated people in the theatre, when asked their secret of success, state they are good listeners. An individual alone should never learn dialogues. A complete dialogue may be read privately by individual students as often as they wish, but only for a clearer understanding of what it is about or to check the vocabulary. Students should never try to memorize the lines. Whenever students are speaking the lines of a dialogue they should be listening to someone and responding appropriately to them. It would good if we could remove the words ‘memorize’ and ‘recite’ from the vocabulary of language classes. We should replace them with ‘learn’ and ‘communicate’. Rote memorization of dialogues represents poor language learning. In fact, “Talk and Listen” activity requires students to make eye contact whenever someone is speaking.
Listen and Do
Listen-and-do activities can be a part of almost any lesson. Such activities help children:
No conflict, no drama. If there is conflict in the play between two characters, then the teacher can ask the students to brainstorm and discuss possible causes of the feud. If there is a problem in the play, the teacher can ask the students to predict, guess the possible solution.
Role-play of a particular Scene
In pairs the students can produce a simple dramatic performance for each scene. This will help promote their writing and speaking skills. The emphasis should be on communicating the essence of the scene in the students’ own language.
Activity for Listening
The teacher can read out a particular scene from the play. And at the end he/she asks the students to jot down in one or two sentences, a description of the part they liked best or found most memorable or moving. Then learners may be asked to note down specific information. The teacher can give questions to the students before reading the scene for the second time. If we are doing Romeo & Juliet in the class, then questions like (i) Jot down any references to the sun/moon made by Romeo/Juliet.
Activity for Writing Skill
If in a play a character wants to write a letter, as in Romeo & Juliet (Act IV, Scene i) Frair Lawrence intends to send a letter to Romeo. Then students in group can discuss what Frair Lawrence would say in this letter and how to phrase it in order not to alarm Romeo but to reassure him. Then individually students may be asked to write Frair Lawrence’s letter in their language.
When planning drama activities, teachers should take into account: (1) the learners’ interests, (2) the learners’ needs, (3) the learners’ ages, (4) and even the time of the day. If an activity doesn’t correspond to students’ interests, if the learners are tired because they had a physical training lesson or a test right before the activity, it could be waste of time. Drama activities should not emphasize accuracy and fluency; instead, focus on practicing the use of language.
All children are not good at acting, especially if drama is not part of their first language curriculum. But most children like drama activities. Introduce drama into your classroom in small steps. Start with easy, guided activities (miming), and move on to less controlled activities (plays) as the children gain confidence.
Total physical Response (TPR) activities are an excellent way to introduce dramatization: have children respond to language with their bodies, a first step to miming and acting. Help children realize that they can say thing in different ways: loudly, quietly, angrily, sadly. (It’s a good way to explore the power of their voices.) Choose one word and say it in different ways. Next have the children choose word and practice saying them in many different ways. This could be done as a kind of competition; children enjoy this activity. Drama is an enjoyable way for young learners to practice English. Give feedback on what the children have done, not only the end product and language but also the process they went through, the way they cooperated with each other, and how they came to decisions. Always find something positive to comment on.
The use of drama and short stories has a definite place in the language classroom. They provide meaningful and enjoyable language practice, and they encourage learners to explore the wonderful world of the English language. activities built using stories and dramas develop students’ intelligence by stimulating their imagination and creativity. Drama offers a wonderful opportunity for students to develop fluency in English. The more drama the children do, the better language learners they will become. Stories and drama are solutions to large classes and limited resources. Stories from around the world are excellent to use in the classroom, but the stories from students’ own culture and heritage would be definitely more suitable and enjoyable resource to learn English without stress and anxiety.
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Mishra, A.K. Literature and Culture in Language Teaching with Special Reference to Teaching Hindi as a Second Language. 2009.Accepted for publication in a book.
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Department of Materials Production Testing and Evaluation
Deputy All India Coordinator DCS
Deputy Dean of Non-Formal CoursesThe English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad
The school is more than a place where knowledge and skills are taught and learned. It is a miniature community in itself where members interact and influence the behavior of each other. The nature of interaction and influence in the school is an important factor in determining the learner's perceptions of school and his/her attitudes toward school-related activities. A teacher is a person engaged in interactive behavior with students for bringing in a change in them. The change, could be in knowledge (cognitive), skill (psychomotor) or feeling states (affective), is intentional on the part of the teacher.
Research was conducted on teacher personality to find a base for differences in classroom performance or teacher effectiveness. The findings are:
Research on teacher personality is based on assumption that a teacher is a significant variable in the teaching–learning process. Personality influences the behavior of the teacher in diverse ways, such as interaction with students, methods selected, and learning experiences chosen. The effective use of a teacher’s personality is essential in conducting instructional activity. Personality aids teaching, for communication takes place between the teacher and the learner even in the absence of the spoken word (nonverbal communication). The teacher whose personality helps create and maintain a classroom or learning environment in which students feel comfortable and in which they are motivated to learn is said to have a desirable teaching personality.
The most successful teachers share some common characteristics. Here are the top six keys to being a successful teacher. Every teacher can benefit from focusing on these important qualities. Success in teaching, as in most areas of life, depends almost entirely on the teacher’s attitude and approach.
a. Sense of Humor
A sense of humor can help one become a successful teacher. It can relieve tense classroom situations before they become disruptions. A sense of humor will also make class more enjoyable for the students and possibly make students look forward to attending and paying attention.
b. Positive Attitude
A positive attitude is a great asset in life. A positive attitude will help you cope with any adverse situation in the best way.
c. High Expectations
An effective teacher must have high expectations. S/he should strive to raise the bar for his students. Work with an attitude that says that you know students can achieve to your level of expectations, thereby giving them a sense of confidence too. This is not to say that you should create unrealistic expectations. However, your expectations will be one of the key factors in helping students learn and achieve.
In order to create a positive learning environment your students should know what to expect from you each day. You need to be consistent. This will create a safe learning environment for the students and they will be more likely to succeed. It is amazing that students can adapt to teachers throughout the day that range from strict to easy. However, they will dislike an environment in which the rules are constantly changing.
Many people confuse fairness and consistency. A consistent teacher is the same person from day to day. A fair teacher treats students equally in the same situation. For example, students complain of unfairness when teachers treat one gender or group of students differently.
One of the tenets of teaching should be that everything is in a constant state of change. Interruptions and disruptions are the norm and very few days are 'typical'. Therefore, a flexible attitude is important not only for your stress level but also for your students who expect you to be in charge and take control of any situation.
It can be seen that the personality of a teacher deeply influences students and teaching process. It is very important in controlling the lessons and the learning process. A strong personality is recommended for the teacher, besides their competence and knowledge of teaching methods.
1. Erikson, E.H. Insight and Responsibility. New York: Norton, 1964.2. Maslow, A.H. Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
Dr. A. K. Paliwal
Vidhya Bhawan, CTE, Udaipur
This paper discusses both the narrow and broad concept of colonization, post colonialism, its impact on Indian education and pedagogy. The paper further mentions how some critics, thinkers, writers including Edward Said, Franz Fann, Homi Bhaba , Paul Gilroy and Gayatri Spivak and others opposed the colonization through their discourses and tried to nullify the logic of colonialists. For understanding post- colonialism, these pioneers of post colonialism used the tools of Marxism, new historism, psychoanalysis and deconstruction. The colonial pedagogy was, in fact, the pedagogy of the oppressor. The extracts of their writings and speeches (Charles Wood,Macaulay,etc) quoted in the paper speak volumes for their colonial mindset. Arthur Macaulay’ s Downwards Filtration Theory is also discussed in the paper. Paranjpe, Nurullah and Niak,, Prof.S.N, Mukharji and many other learned Indian scholars criticized the views of such colonists on various solid grounds by giving ample evidence .
In addition to all this, the paper also touches upon the post –independence scenario and by giving ‘ a priori’ reasons raises some perplexing questions.
Colonialism, colonization, post colonialism, the colonial pedagogy, critical pedagogy, multiculturalism, indigenous language pedagogy, etc.Introduction:
This paper discusses both the narrow and broad concept of colonization, post colonialism, its impact on Indian education and pedagogy. The paper further mentions how some critics, thinkers, writers including Edward Said, Franz Fann, Homi Bhaba , Paul Gilroy and Gayatri Spivak and others opposed the colonization through their discourses and tried to nullify the logic of colonialists. For understanding post- colonialism, these pioneers of post colonialism used the tools of Marxism, new historism, psychoanalysis and deconstruction.
The colonial pedagogy was, in fact, the pedagogy of the oppressor. The extracts of their writings and speeches (Charles Wood,Macaulay,etc) quoted in the paper speak volumes for their colonial mindset. Arthur Macaulay’ s Downwards Filtration Theory is also discussed in the paper. Paranjpe, Nurullah and Niak,, Prof.S.N, Mukharji and many other learned Indian scholars criticized the views of such colonists on various solid grounds by giving ample evidence .In addition to all this, the paper also touches upon the post –independence scenario and by giving ‘ a priori’ reasons raises some perplexing questions.
According to Dr. Rajan Gurukkal "Colonialism" is a term that critically refers to the political ideologies which legitimated the modern invasion, occupation and exploitation of inhabited lands by overwhelming outside military powers. For the local populations, it implied the forceful elimination of resistance, the imposition of alien rules, and the parasitic utilization of natural resources including manpower. This term appeared in the context of Marxism and became a cornerstone of the discourse of resistance during the 20th century. It was meant to counter the positive connotations attached to the use of "colonization" -- understood as a legitimate "civilizing process" often reinforced by a religious agenda -- by calling attention to its actual economic motivations and denouncing its ruthless oppression.
(B). The Impact of Colonialism:
Prof.Visan Mansure believes that the impact of the colonization is follows;
- The total or partial erosion of the colonized culture.
- The mediation of the identity and subjectivity of the colonized.
- The total rejection by some elements among the colonized of everything western as a form of reaction and protest against the colonizer.
- The categorization of the world into ranks, such as first world, second world, the West and the rest with all the subsequent stereotyping and prototyping that follows.
- The emergence of different forms of fundamentalism that aim at purifying their local cultures from the residues of the colonial past.
- The emergence of bourgeoisie classes in the colonies, modeling themselves after their masters, who endeavor to maintain their status quo by getting closer to Western culture.
- The emergence of societies with a lot of contradictions and split loyalties.
(c). The Post- Colonialism:
According to Dr. Rajan Gurukkal,"Post-colonialism" loosely designates a set of theoretical approaches, which focus on the direct effects, and aftermaths of colonization. It also represents an attempt at transcending the historical definition of its primary object of study toward an extension of the historic and political notion of "colonizing" to other forms of human exploitation, normalization, repression and dependency. Post-colonialism forms a composite but powerful intellectual and critical movement, which renews the perception and understanding of modern history, cultural studies, literary criticism, and political economy.
According to Dr. Rajan Gurukkal, "Post-colonialism" appeared in the context of decolonization that marked the second half of the 20th century and has been appropriated by contemporary critical discourse in a wide range of domains mapped by at least half a dozen disciplines. However, in spite of some two decades of definitional debates, this term remains a fuzzy concept stretching from a strictly historical definition to the more encompassing and controversial sphere of its contemporary kin-terms similarly prefixed by a morpheme that indicates temporal succession while suggesting transcending perspectives (post-structuralist, post-modern and the like).
Some critics, thinkers, writes including Edward Said, Franz Fann, Homi Bhaba , Paul Gilroy and Gayatri Spivak and others opposed the colonization through their discourses and tried to nullify the logic of colonialists. For understanding post- colonialism, these pioneers of post colonialism used the tools of Marxism, new historism, psychoanalysis and deconstruction.
(D). The Colonial Pedagogy: The pedagogy of the oppressor?
The pedagogy of the colonists was essentially pedagogy of the oppressor. In fact, the colonists wanted to suppress the oppressed through a pedagogy, which would server their purposes.
There is a lot of evidence available which speak volumes for their colonial mindset. For instance, the Charles Wood’s Dispatch states “ Among many subjects of importance, none can have a stronger claim to our attention that of education. It is one of our most sacred duties ….We must emphatically declare that education which we desire to see extended in India is that which has for its object the diffusion of the improved Arts, Science, Philosophy and Literature of Europe, in short of European.”
According to Arthur Macaulay’ s The Downwards Filtration Theory,” Education was to permeate the masses from above. Drop by drop, from above the Himalayas of Indian life, useful information was to trickle downwards forming in time a road and stately stream to irrigate the thirsty plants. (The Education of India.p.92) .
In Lord Macaulay’s opinion,”A single shelf of good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia”. Addressing the British Parliament on 2 Feb.1835 he said,” I have traveled across the length and breadth of India and I have not seen one person who is a beggar, who is a thief. Such wealth I have seen in this country, such high moral values, people of such caliber that I do not think we would ever conquer this country, unless we break the very backbone of this nation, which is her spiritual and cultural heritage, and, therefore, I propose that we replace her old and ancient education system, her culture, for if the Indians think all that is for foreign and English is good and greater than their own, they will lose self-esteem, their native culture, and they will become we want them, truly dominating nation….We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect."
Indian thinkers on various grounds rightly criticized such colonial mindset. For example, criticizing the Wood’s Dispatch Paranjpe writes, ” The dispatch does not even refer to the ideal of universal literacy although it expects education to spread over a wider field through the grants-in-aid system: it does not recognize the obligation of the state to educate every child below a certain age…. The authors did not aim at education for leadership, education for the industrial regeneration of India, education for the defense of the motherland, in short education required by the people of a self-governed nation.
Nurullah and Niak argue: ”We cannot, however, find any justification for the superlative terms in which some historians have described the Dispatch and even called it,”the Magna Charta of Indian education. Prof.S.N .Mukharji also criticizes the dispatch and says ”It introduced a new education system based on a chain-work of schools ,colleges, examination under the ultimate control of t e state. The new type of centralized system with numerous departments, files and officers introduced red-tapism and eroded the Indian system of flexibility.
Thus we see that the colonialists tried their best to employ a pedagogy, which successfully served their larger interests in terms of spreading their own culture, language, beliefs, values, etc. For instance, in India they used especially the brains of Lord Macaulay, Adam Smith, Charles Wood (1854,Wood’s Dispatch) and William Bentick for realizing their colonial goals. Therefore, the colonists forced Indian students to learn English as well as to study English and Western literature with a view to becoming the respectable members of the white -collared elite class’. Both the content and the process of education were English in nature. In fact, this was their hidden agenda.
Consequently it gradually resulted in creating a rift between the various strata of the contemporary Indian society. One of the strata became their mental salves faithfully and obediently serving their maters’ aims. Paulo Freire’ termed such pedagogy as “The pedagogy of the oppressed.” In my humble view, this ill- conceived pedagogy was lacking in basic human values also. The colonialists deployed the undemocratic educational tools as lectures, sermons, speeches, preaching, without giving room for discourse, discussions, debates, etc.
Obviously the pre- independence students under the British regime in India were generally never allowed to ask questions on the validity and reliability of the content and process of the western education. They were compelled to learn King’s English or Queen’s English .The so -called standard English was taught to them. This approach also developed in them superiority complex for learning standard English and inferiority complex for not using the standard form of their mother tongue.
Criticizing the British educational administration in India, Prof Narullah and Niak conclude,” If the non –formulation of adequate aims was one weakness of British educational administration, its harmful effect was further enhanced by the adoption of certain wrong methods. Foremost of these was the neglect of the indigenous system of education, which resulted in its complete extinction by 1900.Extreme dependence on English models, and the attempt to impose upon India a cheap imitation of all types of schemes and ideas that were evolved in England was another wrong step. England is urban, industrialized and rich; India is rural, agricultural, and poor. This contrast in socio-economic background makes England a poor model for India….”(page 861)
(F). Post –independence scenario: Some perplexing questions.
In the context of the above discussion, it is pertinent to ask the question whether we have really got rid of the colonial mindset so far as the management of education is concerned in the post- independent India. I for one believe that the answer to the above question is a big NO. In order to objectively penetrate the investigation we have to brood over the following questions:
- Why should our students even today learn and use the King’s English / Queen’s English? Why should teachers force students to adopt the RP or BBC or American pronunciation if the goal is intelligibility within the country? Why should we not promote GIE? Why should our curricula and syllabi not have adequate place for writings by Indian writers, poets, essayists, satirists, journalists, reporters, etc.
- Is the distinction between the standard and non-standard languages, dialect and language not colonial in nature?
- Why should our local dialects be looked down upon in formal system of education? Why should the language of the tribal, downtrodden people be made a laughing stock in the non-rural and metropolitan educational circles?
- Why should the home- language of the children be put aside when it comes to educating them? Why should it always be English as the medium of elementary education in India? Why should we not use the home language of the child for educating him/her in the best way? Does it not show the colonial mindset of our present government / establishment, educational authorities?
- Why should all the middle and lower strata of the society be forced to speak the language of the, powerful, royal and elite class?
- Should we not try to liberate language from the clutches of the so- called royal, modern influence?
- Why should language pedagogy be exclusively oriented towards the colonial interest?
- Why should language pedagogy be made a tool for serving the purpose of the so-called standard language? Who decides the norms, parameters and criteria for the standardization of language, its grammar and pronunciation, etc? For what purpose? Whose interest does this mindset serve?
- Who are the second or foreign language teachers? What is their mindset? What variety of language do they teach? Why do they teach what they teach? How do they teach what they teach? How do they assess their students’ performance in the language being taught? Why is it so that there is a heavy focus on the use accuracy, standard language, standard pronunciation, etc?
- What methods do language teachers use with the classrooms full of rural background and tribal and ‘dalit ‘children? Is their culture not a rich educational resource? Why do these teachers not use the language spoken by these children? Why do these teachers make the children feel inferiority complex when they (children) cannot speak their (teachers’) language? Do we not want these children get proper education and grow in life?
- Is multilingualism not a great resource for education in our country? Why should everybody be a monolingual?
- Is language not meant for communication, acquisition of knowledge, development of personality, getting pleasure in life, etc?
(G). Developing Post -colonial Indigenous pedagogy: Content and Process
Some of the measures we could take up for developing postcolonial indigenous and critical pedagogy are as follows:
- Spelling out appropriate content of education to be imparted in our local and global contexts.
- Evolving indigenous pedagogic approaches to education.
- Conducting historical researches, descriptive and normative surveys, experimental researches, and need- bases projects for the above- mentioned issues.
- Integrating the content and process of education in such a manner that we succeed in developing a society of people who respect true functional democracy, who have local and global vision for the harmonious growth of the mankind, who make meaningful efforts for eliminating colonial impact, who believe in themselves in the task of uprooting human exploitation in all walks of life.
- Translating the educational thoughts of Krishna, Buddha, Mahaveer , Tagore, Gandhi,Giju Bhai ,Vivekanannd ,Aurobindo,Radha Krishnan, etc along with the thoughts of Rousseau,Pestalozzi,Frobel ,Dewey,Russel ,etc into a reality.
(H). Concluding Remarks:
The colonists generally used ‘education’ as a tool for empowering themselves politically, economically and culturally. Due to this, the colonies gradually began to lose their distinct cultural identity. Obliviously the colonists did more harm than good to the colonies. Unfortunately the erstwhile colonies still today are more or less under the undesirable influence of the colonial mindset. The only way out for getting true ‘freedom’ is to have an indigenous education system, which may be multicultural in nature along with a critical pedagogy. The million dollar question is,” Are we ready for it?’
1. Bureau of Education. Selections from Educational Records, Part I (1781-1839). Edited by H. Sharp. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing, 1920. Reprint. Delhi: National Archives of India, 1965, 107-117.
2. Cornoy, Martin.(1997).Cultural Imperialism and Education.Delhi:Granth Shilpi (India)pvt.ltd.
3. Dinesh , Bhardwaj.(1964).Bhartya Shiksha Ki Aadhunik Samasyay.Agra: Vinod Pushtak Mandir
4. Nurulla,Syed and Naik J.P. (1951). A History of Indian Education.
5. Paulo Freire.( 1973). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury Press
6. Post-colonialism Today;Challenges and Pragmatic Issues. A Multidisciplinary Conference. Toronto,Sepember 26-28,2008
Dr. Jitendra Sharma
S.G.K. Teachers' College (C.T.E.) Jodhpur
The language laboratory, long a bulwark of programmed instruction (i.e., drill and repeat exercises), is now experiencing a reevaluation by teachers for its potential as an instructional tool.
Students achieve facility in "using" a language when their attention is focused on conveying and receiving authentic messages (that is, messages that contain information of interest to speaker and listener in a situation of importance to both). This is "interaction."
WHAT ARE LANGUAGE LABORATORIES?
Technically, a language laboratory is an instructional technology tool consisting of a source unit that can disseminate audio materials to any number of students at individual seats or carrels. Language labs can be categorized into three levels. In level I labs, students passively listen (usually through headsets) to audio materials emanating from a single source unit. The students may repeat the materials they hear, but are not able to "self monitor" through feedback from headsets. Level II labs provide the self-monitoring option through the addition of a microphone to each headset. In both Level I and II labs, students are restricted to working at the same rate on any given assignment because the only audio source is the teacher's console. Level III labs break this restriction by providing students with a tape recorder, video monitor, and/or computer at each carrel. Thus, at the teacher's discretion, the student has access to the full range of controls including playback, record, and review. Level I and II labs are limited to programmed instruction because of their single distribution source. It is with Level III labs in mind that we consider making the lab interactive and creating communicative environments.
HOW CAN THIS TRANSITION BE MADE?
The history of computer-aided language instruction provides a model for reevaluating the role of the language lab. Like language labs, computers came into the arena as a means of providing programmed instruction. In the early days, computer programs were designed to replace the teacher in the more mundane tasks of drilled exercises. Within a relatively short period of time, new approaches for computer use were developed. Dubbed "Computer Assisted Language Learning" (CALL), these programs broke from the programmed instruction approach taken by the earlier Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), to take a new, communicative-oriented, teacher-directed, task-based approach to computer use (Jones, 1986; Baltra, 1987).
One of the reasons that computers were able to make the transition from programmed instruction (CAI) to more interactive approaches (CALL) without the rejection that language labs faced was that computers were not created as an intrinsic component of the audio-lingual approach. Another reason was that computers, unlike language labs, had an infinite range of applications outside the field of language learning. Educators, then, did not have preconceived ideas regarding the limitations of computers (as they had with language labs), but looked forward to their increasingly expanding potential.
To see the language laboratory as a tool in this light is the first step in the reevaluation process. The next step is to glean ideas from CALL, as well as from other areas, that can be adapted to more appropriate uses in the language lab. Task-based activities are a means of integrating interactive learning through use of the language lab. These activities look at the language laboratory in the same way that CALL looks at the computer: as a tool that requires teacher direction in creating situations in which the students utilize the target language to attain some non-language-related objective. The distinction between task-based language lab activities and programmed instruction is essentially the same as that between CALL and CAI: one focuses on communicative fluency, the other on linguistic accuracy.
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF TASK-BASED ACTIVITIES?
There are three main criteria for task-based activities. First, they have a goal or purpose that requires the use of the target language, but is not itself centered on that language. For example, each student writes and tape records a story about an invented vacation. Students then listen to the stories and evaluate them in terms of which vacation they would most like to take themselves. The students' goal is to tell a story that interests and excites their peers. The focus is on the story rather than on the language itself; however, the means to the end is through effective communication in the target language.
The second criterion involves making use of the unique features of a language lab to create a learning environment that cannot be recreated in the regular classroom. Activities such as cloze exercises based on music passages are not lab-specific. Such an activity can be accomplished as well, or perhaps even better, with a portable tape recorder in the regular classroom.
On the other hand, some group-oriented classroom-based activities can be improved by adapting them to the language laboratory. For example, paired activities involving one student describing something or giving directions to another student may be better accomplished in the language laboratory than in the classroom. Lab pairing eliminates the opportunity for students to see or show the materials they are working with, and thus heightens listening comprehension and questioning skills. Telephone conversations are another activity ideally suited in this way for the language lab.
The third characteristic of a task-based activity is that it involves the student in a way that intrinsically motivates, lowers the affective filter, and creates a desire to excel. One element of motivation is to want something. "To want something is to be motivated, and motivation initiates and sustains involvement in learning" (Spithill, 1980, p.72). Task-based activities, then, can be designed to provide students with the opportunity to want something.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF TASK-BASED LAB ACTIVITIES?
The role of task-based activities is to provide learners with opportunities to use the target language contextually, and to explore the target language through situational activities. In this way, the language lab can serve as an invaluable tool in the language learning and teaching process, for it provides opportunities for learning that cannot be duplicated in the classroom.
A tool, however, is only as effective as its implementer, and thus the role of the teacher is central to the success of task-based activities. The aim of patterned lab drills was to provide a mechanical means to free the teacher for other instructional activities. Task-based activities bring the teacher back into the lab. The role of the teacher has been summarized by Rivers (1987):
Part of the teacher's art is to create, or stimulate student creation of, the types of situations in which interaction naturally blossoms and in which students can use for actual communication what they have been learning in a more formal fashion. (p.4)
Baltra, A. (1986). "Computer assisted language learning: What is it all about?" Paper presented at a conference at the University of California, Irvine.
Baltra, A. (1987). "Cooperative Learning, communicative software, and teachers as stage directors." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, (Miami, FL, April 21-25).
Jones, C. (1986). It's not so much the program, more what you do with it: The importance of methodology in CALL. "System, 14"(2), p.171-78.
Rivers, W. (Ed.). (1987) "Interactive language teaching." NY: Cambridge University Press.
Spithill, A.C. (1980). Motivation and language teaching. "Hispania, 61"(1), p.72-75.
English is an international lingua franc and a language of opportunities. It has long been recognized as a global language. As a consequence of historical and socio-political factors, English has emerged as the most widely used second language in India. According to a latest survey, it is estimated that about 5% of India’s population use English as apart of their working life. India is believed to have the fourth largest population of the speakers of this language on the world linguistic map. Thus, its role for our survival can never be underestimated.
From historical perspective, India has seen at least three different objectives of teaching English – creation of a class of people who could understand English and carry out orders (as laid down by the British), learning and using English as a library language (as laid down by Education Commission 1964-66), and development of communicative skills (as laid down by Education Commission 1986). These objectives have shown their impact, directly or indirectly, on our classroom practices, and consequently also on the students’ language proficiency which is, by and large, continues to be frustrating despite all efforts.
The national Curriculum Framework, 2005 has laid down fresh objectives, and guidelines for teaching English in the view of the developmental needs of the individual as well as that of the nation in the global perspectives. This calls for an analytical view of the situation and challenges that the teachers of English will have to face.
What does NCF 2005 envisage on English language teaching?
The document states ‘the goal of a second language curriculum is two fold: attainment of a basic proficiency, such as is acquired in natural language learning, and the development of language into an instrument for abstract thought and knowledge acquisition’. This broad objective can be achieved by providing input-rich communicational environments, and adopting across-the-curriculum approaches (NCF2005: p35-39). These goals are radically different from those that have been addressed to so far. This article attempts to examine the implications of such ambitious goals for the teachers of English.
It is a common knowledge that, by and large, teachers lack fluency in English. It is partly due to the way they have been taught English at schools or colleges and also because of the fact that most of the time they use students’ mother tongue for classroom interactions, and the lack of initiative to improve their own English. There is a strong positive correlation between teacher’s command over the language and students’ language proficiency. Now, becomes an imperative for the teachers to improve their own fluency in the use of English. They will have to see that their own English is grammatically correct, appropriate, and acceptable. This cannot be achieved unless a fundamental change takes place in their mode of thinking. They will have to realize that the world has drastically and so have the students’ needs. They cannot carry on with traditional classroom practices like reading aloud and translating the text, teaching formal grammar and mechanical transformation, and traditional evaluation and testing.
In addition to it, there lies the goal of enabling the students to make English an instrument of abstract thought and knowledge acquisition. It seems to me that the whole effort teaching English will go wasted unless this particular potential is developed in the students. The conclusion is obvious – the teachers will have to develop this faculty in themselves.
The issue discussed above can be addressed, as suggested in NCF 2005, by creating input-rich communicational environments, and by adopting across the curriculum approaches. The input-rich communicational environments may comprise physical environment in which students are exposed to the written form e.g. notices, quotations, wall-bulletins, newspapers, magazines, libraries, book-corners, and the like. In doing so, the students are given opportunities to interact with the input. The concept also includes opportunities for real communication in the target language. The teacher will be required to sincerely adopt a mode of behavior that would encourage real communication in English within the school or even outside it. This needs positive attitude, sympathy, patience, and tolerance to mistakes. This is a component that, I think, no training can cultivate in the teacher, excepting the inner drive of their own.
This, in a way, is application of constructivist approach to learning. Interacting with the environment, working in groups or doing pair work the students discovers rules that govern the language use, and adopt or reject as per their individual needs, thus build their own language. The teacher will be required to understand his/her own role as a facilitator.
The third directive, that lays emphasis on induction of the across-the-curriculum approach, is of vital significance. It underlines the need for a major reshuffle in schools’ general schedule to make provision for time and space to be able to organize the across- the- curriculum activities. The teacher will be required to strike a balance between the actual course content, specified in terms of skills and linguistic content – vocabulary, grammar etc., and the expected learning outcomes of the activities the teacher wishes to conduct across the curriculum.
While working on the issue, I came to the conclusion that a teacher will have understand and specify the extent to which the activities based on across the curriculum approach can successfully help students achieve the specified objectives without putting in extra time and effort. For instance, activities like the theatre, story telling, puppetry, and literary activities like debating, creative writing, recitation etc. should be goal oriented, and the performance should be assessable. This leads to a serious psychological problem. The purpose of such activities is to make language learning a joyful experience, and supplement classroom teaching. But, the moment the activities are related to assessment or testing students drastically lose interest in participation, defeating the very purpose of it.
This situation once again underlines the need for developing sophisticated tools, techniques, and systems that can enable us to assess students’ progress on formative basis without causing undue stress and anxiety.
The goal of development of language as an instrument of abstract thought and knowledge acquisition appears to be vague, and rather frightening. The NCF2005 does not categorically specify its implications. It seems that it is something like saying ‘a student should have acquired the same level of command over the second language that he/she has over their mother tongue’; it is then only that the target language can be used as an instrument for abstract thought and knowledge acquisition. If this is the goal of a second language curriculum, the implications can be beyond imagination. If this goal is realistic and attainable, the basic question that arises is how? How the teacher can realize this objective is yet not clear.
However, it is surely an effort that would take ELT off the beaten track.
TASK BASED TEACHING
AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH OF ELT
Dr. Ami Rathod
Lok Manya Tilak Teachers Training College,Dabok, Udaipur
Perhaps task-based instruction is one of the most important innovations of educationists of the late 20th Century. Early on after its introduction, a number of researches and syllabus designers called for a move towards task based instruction in language teaching (Problem, 1987; Nunan 1989, Long and Crooks 1991). This article reviews the background, meaning, opinions, and assumptions, role of learner and teacher and materials to be used in task-based language learning approach.
Task based Approach (TBA)
One of those methods spawned by CLT is the task-based language learning approach (TBA). Psychologically speaking, TBA arises from the notions of declarative and procedural knowledge (Anderson Lynch 1987) and the study of cognitive process such as memory, attention and recall. It also takes into account the advances of psycholinguistic research and bilingualism. All these developments had started to be taken in account in the CLT era. Linguistically speaking, the view of language as communication from previous periods evolved towards the inclusion of disciplines such as pragmatics and discourse analysis which study the social aspect of language and computational linguistics, which uses data bases to examine real samples of language thus, this period is characterized by the cooperation between cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics on the one hand, which have enlightened our comprehensions of L2 learning, and discourse analysis and computational linguistics on the other hand which have shed a more realistic view of the language to be taught. However, differently form previous periods the TBA has not rejected CLT modes of thought, but incorporated them into its framework. Thus, the results is an approach focused on the process rather than the final product, in which a lot of importance is attached to methodology, to the learner and to the development of the lesson procedures.
More precisely, according to Cerezal (1996:183) a task based approach can be defined as “how a learner applies his or her communicative competence to undertake a selection of tasks”. A task is an activity or goal that is carried out using language, such as finding the solution to a puzzle, reading a map and giving directions, making a telephone call, writing a letter or reading a set of instructions and assembling a toy. “Tasks generally bear same resemblance to real life language use.” (Skehan 1996). They involve problem solving activities with a single or with several closed or open ended tasks, they are developed taking as starting point a specific socio linguistic authentic situation (i.e. going shopping) and include processes such as listing, sorting, ranking, ordering, gap filling etc.
Some leading opinions about TBA
Long and Crooks (1991) claims that, “tasks provide a vehicle for the presentation of appropriate target language samples to learners and for the delivery of comprehension and production opportunities of negotiable difficulty.”
Krashen (1981) has long insisted that, “comprehensible input is the one necessary and sufficient criterion for successful language acquisition. Others have argued however that productive output and not merely input is also critical for adequate second language development”.
Those that learners might need to achieve in the life.
Those that have a pedagogical purpose for class.
Goals of TBA
Like any other approach the language teaching, the first goal of task-based learning is that of becoming more native-like in one’s performance in a second language. As intriguing as this goal may seem, it is challengeable on a number of grounds. First, there is the issue of what ‘native -like’ means. Second, many language learners may have other models of competence that they aspire to, rather than a particular native speaker version. Moreover, there are L2 learners who reject a native-speaker model completely or partially. It is, therefore necessary to separate learner goals from this genral goal into the three min areas of
Accuracy is concerned with inter language speakers, ability to handle whatever level of complexity they have achieved; complexity relates to the stage and elaboration of the underlying intra language system; and fluency has to do with inter language speakers ability to communicate meaning in real time (Skehan, 1996).
Syllabus of TBA should include
Nunan (1989) Suggests that a syllabus might specify two types of tasks:
Role of learner in TBA
Tasks improve learner’s motivation and therefore promote learning. This is because:
Role of Teacher in TBA
Materials to be used in TBA
Instructional materials play an important role in TBA because it is dependent on a sufficient supply of appropriate classroom tasks, same of which may require considerable time, ingenuity and resources to develop. Materials can be exploited for instruction in TBA is limited only of the imagination of the task designer. TBA favors the use of authentic tasks supported by authentic materials wherever possible. For example: Newspaper, televisions, Internet etc.
Task-based approach to language teaching runs against the normal route of language development. The very nature of tasks predisposes students involved in task completion to engage in “a mode of communicating which does not prioritize a focus on form, either in terms of using linguistic elements to achieve precision or to achieve accuracy (Skehan 1996.). The natural outcome of this is that a task-based approach will not automatically drive inter language forward. Rather, it will teach learners how
Thus, it is high time for syllabus designers and teacher educators of India to rethink the present status of ELT, global challenges and new pedagogy emerging in present era. So that teachers could prepare themselves for present need of the learners and apply innovations in their teaching process, this will lead them to become realistic motivators of learners and will the able to create opportunities to trigger acquisition processes move forward.
Dr Arun Joshi
Existence of FANTASY is as old as the human creative mind itself. It is a cardinal point in human character; it is fundamental to the process of thinking. Fantasy means a faculty making things visible, a capacity for imaging. Thus, the role of imagination is inherent in fantasy. Man is inclined to indulge in fantasy is so genuine that man treats it as something vital to his whole being. Fantasy happens to be a medium of creative impulses by shaping fleeting visions into creative forms. The mind is like a fountain spraying fantasies in the form of torrential rains. The sparks of fantasy keep the struggling human race cheered up in the hope of innovations. Fantasy is a question of reason rather than feeling and of argument rather than experience. The mind is its governing agent. Reverberations and broodings sharpen the power of fantasy.
It is evident that at the psychological level fantasy is a mode of perception. It is not tied to the laws of nature and it might join at pleasure the objects, which cannot be naturally harnessed. It has remained a precious possession of the gravest thinkers in the creation of fantastic worlds but the layman unfortunately is unable to realise this invaluable gift of the mind.
When fantasy is indeed at work, it sees things to which ordinary intelligence is blind and that these are intimately endowed with a special insight or perception or intuition. To creative writers, insight and fantasy are inseparable. Insight both awakens fantasy to work and it is, in turn sharpened by it. It means when the writers gift of fantasy is engaged, they are inspired by their thoughts and notions into a form. In this way, fantasy helps one solve one's problems. It occurs spontaneously and sometimes involuntarily when one is charged and exhilarated with a new power and enthusiasm.
Fantasy is integrally related to fact and reality, therefore, it is imperative for us to pay proper attention to this faculty of the mind. Thus fantasy is a faculty in which series of events come before one in a spectacular manner and the performer becomes a visionary for certain duration. The creation of fantasies depends upon the very temperament of the person who sees them. Hence, it is intensely subjective in nature.
Fantasies lead one to probe into reality and its meaning When a fantasy assumes a particular form, it becomes significant. Fantasy is the instrument which sets the visionary powers into action. It is true that while the ordinary thinking processes are usually concerned with real things, with here and now, fantasy mostly paints pictures of things which are unseen or remote from us I time or distance. These functions of fantasy are of great practical use to the common man in many ways. All of us -whether artisans, architects, artists, teachers or businessmen possess the power of fantasizing in varying degrees and need to exercise it in their lives and vocations. Needless to say each must necessarily have a fantasy of a specialised kind suited to his own particular type of work. It enables one to perceive objects far away from oneself. It bares what is hidden from view. As a matter of fact, it is a common place process which is necessary to illumine the way for one's everyday thinking and actions.
When fantasy looks into the past, it enables one to see the panorama of past events on the mnemonic canvas of one's life. It is enjoying a flash-back of a film-story. When it looks into the future, it structures patterns, sets up one's ideals, and puts a new gloss on what is going to happen. When it deals with our present it opens up a new dimension, sheds light on the present course of life.
Fantasy can be considered as something miraculous, by means of which a man can transport himself. One of the important functions of fantasy in one's life is that it enables one to visualise the shape of things to come and anticipate the feelings or responses of others. A great architect is one who makes the blue print of a building through his fantasy and sees the façade of the building constructed before a single brick has been laid. It is fantasy, the mind's eye, which enables one to see the entire creation before hand.
Another important use of fantasy is to visualise in advance the effects of our actions or conduct of others or even of ourselves. All preparation for future contingencies is based upon fantasies. It can take us to the heights of courage and self-confidence; it can also drag us down into the depths of despair. Fantasy is also an architect because the visions the vision of future, if adhered to with tenacity, have a tendency to come true in actual life, through the power of auto-suggestion. The most important function of fantasy is to produce new ideas and new things. Invention or creation is the highest expression of mind. Fantasy is the distinguishing mark of a genius- whatever be its orientation or manifestation.
The fantasies conform to the external world in some sense because it is responsible for insights. Consciously or unconsciously it is Man who has to enter into communion with this external world, and indeed he can hardly avoid doing so, since birth his life is continuously shaped by it, which penetrates his being and influences his thoughts. The utility of fantasies depends on how exquisitely the external world is fitted to the individual mind, and, the individual mind to the external world. At this stage, fantasy proves man's highest faculty and through it, he realizes his noblest powers. The task of fantasy is to create visions in a dramatic manner by which thoughts and feelings can be revealed.
As activities of the mind are set of responses to stimuli from the external and internal world. So our fantasies can be shaped according to our thinking, reading, perception and desires. Our craving may lead to the spectra of visions. Sometimes fantasy plays the role of compensatory agent for inadequacy and unfulfilled dreams. It also relieves one from frustration and obstructed emotions, sometimes fantasy determines one's future behaviour and decisions. Thus we can treat it as an inexhaustible source of creative ideas. A young man is more susceptible to enjoy himself of fantasies than the elderly lot. Fantasy comes to him as a sport and a mode of dalliance. Fantasy should not be confused with other terms as dramas, day-dreams, nightmares, hypnotism, mesmerism, somnam-bulism, etc. Fantasy is quite different from imagination. Of course, imagination is integral to it. Imagination is a chain of ideas and thoughts while fantasy is a chain of moving and fleeting visions.
It is rare to find a person who experiences no erotic fantasy. The sexual fantasies become a source of recreation and satisfaction. When a person finds any constraints in sexual indulgence, he falls an easy prey to erotic fantasies. Modern advertising technique is largely based upon the notion of stimulating erotic fantasy by making too much of the woman's musculature and curvature. Recent American researches in the field of erotic fantasies are interesting. They highlight the value of erotic fantasies in the lives of fantasizers. Many therapists and psycho-analysts have attributed sound health and happiness to erotic fantasies. As part of their psycho-therapeutic approach, the doctors have begun to encourage their inhibited patients to invent their own fantasies. In fact, very often the fantasy itself discharges the repressed or pent up quanta of energy and entirely eschews the need for release.
The accepted view is that fantasies are romantic, sexual and erotic but it is not so. From latest research studies, one concludes that fantasies are not divinely inspired. Though there is an immense effect of one's religious beliefs on one's fantasies. The realm of fantasy is essentially human. One's instincts, moral-inclinations, cravings, warnings, frustrations, etc. influence the shape and flow of fantasies to a large extent and affect the sub-conscious mind. One's pre-occupations in life determine the nature of one's fantasy.
There is usually a feeling of joy in experiencing the fantastic. Sometimes one has innate emotional trauma, for example-one may have a horror of falling down. If one recollects one's traumatic experience, one indulges in fantasy. Fantasies, thus, have a mnemonic axis to build upon.
A fantasizer possesses a specific psychological capability. Fantasy establishes a rapport between harmony and creativity. It is an unwritten itinerary. It is a means of travelling into the future. It keeps the awareness of the past in-tact. Now it is evident that fantasies are valuable themselves and for the individual fantasizer.
Dr. Divya Joshi
Communication is essential for transmitting information and coordinating the activities of individuals and subgroups. In any group there tends to be a stabilization of particular lines of communication, which are referred to as 'communication nets'. Thus a group member does not communicate equally often with each other member; rather power and role relationships, personal likes and dislikes, subgroup cleavages, and other conditions tend to result in the establishment of particular communication nets.
In the recent part language teaching has changed radically and shifted the emphasis away from 'accuracy' to 'fluency' and from 'structural competence' to 'communicative competence'. The acknowledgment of language as a tool for communication establishes the thesis that communication takes place when we use language to perform a variety of different acts of an essentially social nature. We are not looking at the ability of the learners to compose grammatically correct sentences but rather making language teaching a skill based activity. Hence the primary objective in teaching English, as a second language is to enable the learners communicate effectively in different situations and contexts.
Language learning focuses on two aspects viz. language as 'form' and language as 'function' and for effective communication, the perspective of function is equally important as that of form. For example, the question (interrogative) form performs various communicative functions like asking information, complaining or criticizing, making request or suggestion. Just like a form can be used for different functions, functions too can be expressed through different forms. A sentence comprises of structure words and content words. While the structure words in a sentence enable us to understand the structure along with the relationship between various content words, it is through content words (nouns, main verb, adjective, adverb) we derive the meaning of a sentence. The difference between both lies partly in the nature of their meaning and partly in the characteristics of their use.
. There are three principal views regarding language learning-
The emphasis on language form in language teaching is structure orientated where as the communicative function of language centers around situations and contexts. A language form does not always reflect its communicative function directly. By language function, we mean what do we do with language in diverse situations like using language to ask/give information, express intention/preference, report, invite, regret, convey, and so on. To express language functions appropriately we must venture out into real world English.
Communicative approach to language teaching emphasizes the need for active participation of the learners in classrooms. Communicative exercises involve the learners in an interpersonal and meaningful exchange of information. A variety of forms for each function can be introduced at the preliminary level and can move towards complex ones. The following sentence will help to identify how different forms perform single function -
The language in these sentences is selected according to the situation as well as the relationship between the speaker and the listener. Exercises of this sort can either begin with words or with sentences. By introducing new words, we can help the learners explore opportunities by associating meanings into corresponding situations. And by introducing and assigning situations, we can familiarize the learners with the context as well as number of other things like the role of participant, language used earlier in communication, purpose of the speaker and knowledge of culture. Because meaning and contextualization are the basic premise of communicative approach, it frees the learners of the notion that communication is measured solely in terms of linguistic accuracy at the initial stage.
Situation exercises can include real-life situations like visiting a bank/post office/railway station, shopping, light conversation, discussing and describing events, people places etc. At an advanced level, social and political issues, cultural and entertainment programmes, matters related to economics, education etc. can be introduced because it is natural for people to be concerned about issues that directly or indirectly affect their lives. The grammar and vocabulary that the learner learns follow from the social, functional and situational context. Thus an exposure of language functions facilitates learning and instills confidence in learners. It also helps in vocabulary building and understanding of communication nets thereby making them effective communicators and successful professionals.
Divya Joshi is presently working as a lecturer in English at Govt. Dungar college
“If all my possession were taken from me with one exception, I would choose to keep the power for speech, for by it I would soon regain all the rest.” David Webster
Communication has many forms and without it the life and whole human civilization will come at a stand still. But as we all know sometimes silence communicates more than the words. The very word communication has its roots the Latin word communicare.
We spend most of our lives interacting with others. We all have different reasons to talk to different people. We say things in a certain way depending on who we are speaking too. There is a lot more to communication than just putting words together and saying them out loud. The ability to communicate effectively takes real skill and learning this skill never ends.
Communication is our gateway to the rest of the world. You are the only person that can say what you want. If you do not know how to express what you want or explain what your intentions are clearly, others could easily take what you say and turn your own words against you. To avoid situations like this you must be assertive.
A key component to become an effective communicator; one must know how to express your feelings and ideas honestly and openly. Being assertive means taking responsibility for your own actions and not blaming anybody else. It is the willingness to actually listen to what others are saying and respecting them no matter how different their views are from your own views.
Communication skills are all are around from the day we are born until the rest of our lives. Communication has many parts like verbal, non-verbal etc. Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way. As by changing the word order in a sentence, we can change its meaning and even make it meaningless. There are many levels of communication as Extra Personal, Intra Personal, Interpersonal, Organizational and Mass.
Many things can affect the way one can convey his or her communication skills to others. All of these skills are very personal to one another. Everyone has different ways of expressing some kind of communication.
As our topic says we will talk about different aspects of communication which will help us in understanding the existing techniques and devising new ones.
As I felt in my teaching voyage that the biggest problem students had is that he never came in contact with the language & whatever connection he had was so marginal that it left no impression on him in any way & when he got the exposure, the voices supporting English startled him, he was taken aback and from that very moment, he started to run away from English.
When we are to speak English there are two most important things: one is that everybody wants to speak and the second is very few try hard enough to acquire this skill. One is wish but not supported by efforts so it results in a fail, the other is will if acted upon correctly it can accomplish miraculous things. Once a person said “If we aim at nothing we are sure to hit it.”
To improve students’ confidence a teacher has to play many roles; he has to be patient, energetic, motivating as well as supportive in every possible way. When teacher will be friendly the student will not hesitate in telling the real problems and false fears related with the speaking part.
Now we shall discuss some communication parts and how they affect us. One communication skill is speaking by far one of the most important skill we posses. To be a good speaker one must be able to convey ideas clearly & briefly. One must also have a clear & pleasant tone. This makes the person you are talking to more attentive, thus, more interested. The speaker must also be aware of his environment and the people he is speaking to. Environment plays a very vital role in whatever you say and try to convey to people. If you hear a bird chirping, you might incorporate it to what you were about to say. This makes the person you are talking to even more comfortable with what you are trying to convey with your thoughts and ideas. This is how different things affect one’s communication skill.
The second communication skill is body language, a very personal way of expressing yourself without words. One’s body language can carry a whole conversation without even speaking a word. Sign language is an excellent example of this. One can incessantly communicate with the body language. Speaking and body language go hand in hand, without gestures when talking one can be highly ineffective and boring and we cannot truly explain certain things to someone. When there is sound as well as some kind of visual movement one is more interested in what someone is trying to convey. Through body language one can tell if a person is sad or happy, glad or mad. Body language conveys a lot of expressions of our inner feelings & thoughts. Body language shows many things about you and the way you think. It can also show the way a person reacts to what you convey to him. If the listener is not responding one must try and change the topic without losing the listener’s focus. The speaker can only know through the listener’s body language. Body language is essential to good way of showing & conveying one’s ideas.
Winston Churchill said, “It needs great courage to stand and speak but, it needs greater courage to sit & listen……”
A third and final major communication skill is listening. The most useful communication skill. A good listener is someone who can concentrate and do not loose focus on a subject. When someone listens to someone sometimes they might start daydreaming or think of something else and loose focus on a speaker’s subject. Listening is what connects people together. One cannot speak if no one is listening, “Without a listener there would be no need for a speaker. Listening is a skill that takes a long time to develop and to really understand how to listen. One can hear but are they really listening to what is said? One way to make a listener’s job easier is to have a speaker who is clear and brief. This way the listener won’t drift away and the speaker will state his point. This way the listener will understand what has been said and can make his own interpretations. An active listener is a listener who is involved with what the speaker has started describing. This active listener is listener who is involved with what the speaker is trying to say. He or she for example may nod, lean forward or make eye contact and may also take notes. This shows that the speaker has completed his work successfully and the listener is responding and being active to what has been said. A listener can be biased and not even don’t pay any attention but this does not affect speaker because he may be responding to others. These effects show how important listening is to everyone and what an important communication skill it really is.
Communication skills will be around us forever and will continue to thrive and develop as time goes by. These effects on communications skills show that one can interpret different things through one’s communication skills. As one improves his communication skills it show us how to talk, listen and communicate better with one another. As the world progresses we will see more people taking more time to develop this skill to there fullest. One will understand to control the effects , communication skills causes and how to handle them.
Every teacher tries to impart knowledge of English in the best possible manner but still it is a tough nut to crack. I would like to suggest some ways for effective communication, first 7c’s of communication-
I. Credibility - Builds Trust
II Courtesy - Improves relationships
III Correctness - Builds confidence
IV Consistency - Brings stability
V Concreteness - Reinforce confidence
VI Clarity - Makes comprehension easier
VII Conciseness - Saves time.
The 4 S of communication are also very important.
I. Shortness - Economizes
II Simplicity - Impresses
III Strength - Convinces
IV Sincerity - Appeals
With all these some more things like positive and pleasant approach, clarity of purpose, organization of message, you attitude, proper selection of the words, time consciousness etc. are the ways to effective communication.
I strongly believe that language learning and the art of communicating is a life long process and one has to try with all energy and force to master it.
DCs, EFL University, Hyderabad
Writing well is one of the most sought-after techniques in the fastest growing business world. Oflate, it is recognized as the useful skill to make a career out of this skill. Writing skill is a platform to give a form to one’s thoughts and to shape one’s career. Now a days, there are many opportunities to those who has expertise in business writing, content writing etc. Yet, it is one of the undermined ability that is inherent among students while some professors have little or no time to teach writing skills.
As you may be aware, good writing cannot be restricted to one context or another. Actually, it depends on one’s own ability to think logically, nurture the ideas thereby give shape to thoughts and translate those ideas into words. Aside, one need to explain most complex ideas and make them understandable giving every detail. As often as possible, try to write a few lines about your own experience. Reflecting on your experiences you may organize your ideas, see that they lead from one thought to another. Ensure that there is a free flow of thought and the ideas should be interlinked.
Here are a few tips to help you develop your writing skills:
Taking advantage of time means not only you produce a better write-up but you will do it at ease, without having to work under stress / pressure, without having to over strain oneself being awake over night, losing a night of sleep while they are due. Set aside some time 1 week to draft, 1 week to review, 1 week to revise, 1 week to proofread. By doing so, you gradually develop writing spontaneously week by week. Take a moment to write a paragraph everyday for eg: “Last summer”, “On a holiday” etc—when you’re done you realize that you were writing at a place and the next day when you resume writing you ‘ll be able to pick up the thread easily.
An Outline could be a mind map, a mental image, general idea, a list of points to cover, a statement of purpose-this is an Outline. It tells you what and how am I going to talk about, it should have a topic sentence consisting of a headline and a list of the ten points one is supposed to cover.
An Outline accomplishes a number of topics although it takes a different form. It serves as a yardstick to measure your progress as you proceed to write. It is to ensure that you cover every topic to the fullest extent possible.
A good Outline allows you to leap back and forth, attacking topics vehemently on areas of your research rather than waiting to see before you decide upon a certain topic. Finally, having a plan at your fingertips would keep you focused on the goals you’ve set for the paper, leading you to write better as you go along.
Ask yourself, “ Does this sentence support my argument”? Does it follow the sentence before, and lead into the following sentence? Is the topic of each paragraph clear? Does each sentence contribute to a deeper understanding of the topic?
Revising your paper as many times as possible you realize that the knowledge gained is much more worthwhile than your first draft .As a result, your writing has become refined. This is where you need to pay attention to rules of grammar-whether the sentence is in agreement with subject and a verb. Check the spelling errors. One good trick is to proof read your paper backwards, look at the last word, then the second-to-last , then the third-to-last and so on. This enables your brain to look at each word out of its original context.
The best way to improve your writing is to write, as much as you can. The above tips will help give you direction and determine areas, which you are likely to find weaknesses that undermine one’s weaknesses.
Techniques of Effective Teaching
Dr. Satish Kumar
Director, Department of Educational Technology,
Teaching is a goal oriented process and it influences learning. Teaching and learning are considered the two sides of the same coin. A teacher teaches same content to the learners in the classroom but students may or may not learn at the same pace. It is due to the difference in the level of learners, their need, attitude towards language and learning style. Teaching can be effective if a teacher uses the techniques which facilitate language learning.
There art some techniques proven to enhance effective teaching-
Seize the Moment
Teaching is most effective when it occurs in quick response to a need the learner feels. So even though you are elbow deep in something else, you should make every effort to teach the student when s/he asks as the student learns when s/he is ready to learn.
Involve Student in Planning
Just presenting information to the student does not ensure learning. For learning to occur, you will need to get the student involved in identifying his learning needs and outcomes. Help the student to develop attainable objectives. As the teaching process continues, a teacher can further engage him/ her by selecting teaching strategies and materials that require the student's direct involvement, such as role playing and return demonstration
Begin with Previous Knowledge
Learning moves faster when it builds on what the student already knows. Teaching that begins by comparing the old, known information or process and the new, unknown one allows the student to grasp new information more quickly.
Move from Simple to Complex
The student will find learning more rewarding if he has the opportunity to master simple concepts first and then apply these concepts to more complex ones. Remember that what one student finds simple, another may find complex. A careful assessment takes these differences into account and helps a teacher plan the teaching starting point.
Accommodate Student's Learning Style
How well a student learns depends not only on his/her intelligence and prior knowledge, but also on the student's learning style. Visual learners learn best by seeing or reading; auditory learners, by listening; and tactile learners, by doing. A teacher should plan teaching activities and use teaching tools appropriate to the learning style. A teacher should use different teaching tools, such as printed material, illustrations, videotapes, and actual equipment, to assess learning style.
Sort Goals by Learning Domain
Categorizing what the students need to learn into proper domains helps identify and evaluate the behaviors you expect them to show. Learning behaviors fall in three domains: cognitive, psycho-motor, and affective. The cognitive domain deals with intellectual abilities. The psycho-motor domain includes physical or motor skills. The affective domain involves expression of feeling about attitudes, interests, and values. Most learning involves all three domains.
Make Material Meaningful
Another way to facilitate learning is to relate material to the student's lifestyle -- and to recognize incompatibilities. The more meaningful material is to a student, the quicker and easier it will be learned.
Allow the Students to Apply Knowledge
Students should be given the opportunity to apply his or her new knowledge and skills. This immediate application translates learning to the "real world" and provides an opportunity for problem solving, feedback, and emotional support.
Let the Students relax
When the instructions are complex or lengthy, the students may feel overwhelmed and appear unreceptive to teaching. A teacher should recognize these signs of mental fatigue and let the students relax.
Learning is made easier when the students are aware of their progress. Positive feedback can motivate them to greater effort because it makes their goal seem attainable. Also, ask the students how they feel they are doing. They probably want to take part in assessing their own progress toward learning goals, and their input can guide your feedback.
Praise Students' Success
Praising the students' successes associates the desired learning goal with a sense of growing and accepted competence. Reassuring them that they have learned the desired material or technique can help them retain and refine it.
I conclude with the words of L. Morris, "In teaching there can be no single goal and no exclusive road, there is no universal school with standard students but rather numerous types and varieties of educational establishment differing considerably in background and cultural level. No single approach can possibly deal adequately with all the teachers or equally suit all different mental and temperamental type of both students and teachers. To deal efficiently with the extremely onerous task the teacher requires to be not a scientific, but an artist."
Learning Style : The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Developed in the 1980’s by Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at
Dr. A. K. Modi, Reader, IASE,
Every student has eight different intelligences but in different proportions. It is important to take all eight intelligences into account when planning lessons so that all students have an opportunity to learn in their style. This leads to greater motivation and ultimately more successful learning.
Here are a few ideas for each intelligence:
Linguistic Intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.
Read words, name the words, say the words, listen to the words, shout the words, and whisper the words.
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. The students likes to do puzzles, sequencing activities, or classification activities that involve logical deduction. For example: A is taller than B, but shorter than C. Who is the tallest?
Spatial Intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.
The students likes to use visual aids such as maps, big flashcards and realia. Art projects are also useful
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. The students having this type of intelligence use movement with songs, chants or games that include, for example, running or slapping cards. Gestures, role plays and dramas can also be used.
Musical Intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. It motivates to listen to songs and chants, sing and chant, use body percussion (stamping, clapping, patting, snapping) to accompany songs and chants, and play instruments.
Interpersonal Intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. It involves students in activities or games in which they work together in pairs or groups.
Intrapersonal Intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. It involves students in individual activities that require personal input and personal choices.
Naturalist Intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon certain features of the environment. It shows how the structure/organization of language relates to things in nature. Use realia and "natural" examples whenever possible.
A teacher should design lesson plans that incorporate activities that appeal to various learning styles. Every class has a few children with some difficulty and often, these children benefit from English instruction that appeals to different intelligences that they bring to the classroom but are not appreciated in other subjects.
Learning can be a fun
Prof. Madhu Agarwal, IASE,
Motivation plays a significant role in the process of learning a language. Learners need instruction, input, interaction, and opportunities for meaningful output to maintain motivation for language learning. A good teacher must find ways to identify students' purposes and needs and to develop proper motivational strategies. Students should understand why they need to learn a language. When designing a language course, teachers must take into consideration that each learner has different interests and expectations.
Learning friendly Classroom
Develop a friendly atmosphere in which all students feel comfortable participating in classroom activities. Comfortable environment make them feel like a part of the whole. It is one of the most significant factors in encouraging motivation. It may take time as students adjust themselves to a new setting. A teacher can provide students with a bright and colourful classroom with pictures and projects completed by the students. This gives students the impression that learning the target language will be easy and enjoyable.
Learner-centered, low-anxiety classroom environment has a great impact on language acquisition. It can relax the students and enhance the friendly atmosphere, which will increase their desire to learn and develop their language skills. A teacher should give them a chance to arrange the classroom in the way that would make us feel most comfortable. A friendly is a cheerful place where the learners enjoy learning.
Positive feedback and reinforcement
The students should be given positive feedback and reinforcement to increase students' satisfaction and encourage positive self-evaluation. Students are more affected by positive feedback and success. Praise builds students' self-confidence, competence, and self-esteem. Mistakes should be corrected without hurting them. It is very important for teachers to point out the good aspects of a student's work and to provide a clear explanation of his or her mistakes.
Allow them to set their own goals
Language learners can achieve success by setting their own goals and by directing their studies toward their own expectations. Students can help themselves achieve their goals by determining their own language needs and by defining why they want to learn the language.
Pair and Group Activities
Students learn by doing, making, writing, designing, creating, and solving so engage them in pair and group activity for effective learning. students feel free to speak in small groups. Group activities allow students not only to express their ideas but also to work cooperatively which increases their motivation.
Motivate them to use resources from out side the classroom
A teacher shouldn't limit the students to traditional methods but relate their classroom experience to outside interests and activities. It makes developing language skills more relevant.
Use Classroom Communication
A teacher should use English in the classroom and allow their learners to use English what they have. Learners can get additional speaking practice using the situation they feel more comfortable with.
Learning a language can be a fun if a teacher make it easy.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE : In Indian Context
Rameshwar lal Basera, Reader, IASE, Bikaner
English is a language which is spoken by more than 1500 million people all over the World. It has become lingua franca in the era of globalization. The new global order has created conducive conditions for the rapid growth of the English language all over the world and through it, there is a free flow of knowledge.
In the recent years Indian English has established itself as a powerful sort of link language. English, as a tool of communication and not as culture, is fast spreading from urban to semi-urban and to some extent even rich in rural areas. It is now estimated that 150 million children are learning English at primary school stage. The globalization phase of English will certainly affect the identity of Indian English.
In view of the changing scenario at the global level, the roles assigned to English in contemporary
(a) The market driven utilitarian function is very significant. Indians now recognize that English is necessary for mobility, career advancement opportunities and social and economic purposes.
(b) As an international language English has a lot of 'surrender value' and learners of English can cash on it. Today there is great demand for courses on spoken English, written English, Business English, Management English, Technical English, Medical transcriptions and English for other specific purposes. The market for literary English and literature based courses is fast dwindling.
(c) The fact that English is a window to the world and an access to the growing fund of knowledge in science and technology, can't be denied. Knowledge in every branch is readily available through English, and that too just at the click of mouse on internet. English is an 'Exploding language' in internet and in a world of information explosion.
To conclude, English has to play a catalytic role in contemporary
Soft Skills for a Teacher
Anand Singh Bithu, Lecturer, IASE,
Personal qualities of a teacher characterized as soft skills. Soft Skills are those personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit into a particular structure. The skills include personality traits like emotional maturity, eagerness to learn and willingness to share and embrace with new ideas. As defined in career Opportunities News, October, 2002, Volume 20, No 20, Ferguson Publishing Company- ' A soft skill refers the cluster of personality traits, social graces, facility with language, personal habits, friendliness and optimism that mark each of us to varying degrees…..Don't worry so much about the technical skills, we need you to teach them how to show up on time, how to work in teams and how to take supervision.' Soft skills include interaction, attitude awareness, conflict handling, cooperation, diversity tolerance, etiquette and team work willingness. A teacher who has good presentation skill can understand his/her learners need and plan his lesson accordingly and prepare the learners to face the world so that when the learners enter the real world, they can adjust themselves well with the organisation. If a teacher has soft skill, his/her teaching would be learner centred and
student oriented. S/he motivate the learners to learn by experience and handle the language aptly so s/he helps the learners in achieving the goals.
Due to the advancement in technology and new innovation in the teaching learning process, a teacher should reflect over himself. S/he should have adjustment to needs of the learners. Through soft skills a teacher can help the students express themselves with confidence and clarity and above all become effective leaders. Soft skills include communication skills, interpersonal skills, rapport building and net working, innovation and creativity leadership, emotional intelligence, management skills, motivation, stress management, business communication skills, team building, time management, self management, conflict resolution, negotiating skills, decision making, personality development, attitude and skill building , problem solving and decision making interviewing skills, art of influencing, presentation skills, meditation, goal setting, memory enhancement, creative thinking etc. Using soft skills a teacher can improve his/her own skills which help him/her while teaching in the classroom.
Research and expert opinions have been sought in the effort to determine the specific soft skills to be implemented and used in teaching learning process. As Archna Sharma says,"To live to the challenge of globalization which is in line with the era of information economy, the strength of a nation is strongly dependent on the ability of its citizen to be highly intellectual and skilful. The development of human capital is thus important and necessary since it drives the nation to the envision vision and mission. Without a quality human capital, a nation will be weak as there is no human factor that is capable to embark on new initiatives and perspectives. A quality human capital comes from a quality education process. A carefully designed and well planned education system is critical to developing such human capital. Thus, institution of higher learning plays a very important role to produce a human capital that is highly knowledgeable and skilful to meet the demand and expectations of many people. The teaching and learning processes in institutions should be capable to provide such knowledge and skills to future generation."___________________________________________________________________________
Essential Reforms in Curriculum Designing
Sanjay Goyal,Assistant Professor
P.G. Department of English
The statement of a British speaker in British parliament that English is not only the language of Shakespeare and the romantic poets but also the language of R.N. Tagore, James Joyce and many other African writers today says something about the status of English in the present time. There will not be any sector or area perhaps, which has not been touched by the impact of globalization and English. Keeping the demands of time in mind many new and innovative courses are being launched these lays. Even universities like
Since it has been the language of opportunity, we have to definitely think about the innovative course contents and creative syllabuses for this subject since our students have to go to different fields to get jobs, after completing their courses. We have to ponder over, in the name of teaching English, what are really we teaching to our students in the U.G. and the P.G. level. We must ask this question to ourselves and try to answer them honestly. Are our students getting proficiency in English and what is the purpose of reading it? As far as I am concerned literature is read for both pleasure (aesthetic-sense) and profit (the ability of critical judgement). We should think whether we are achieving these objectives with the help of the existing syllabuses in our colleges and universities.
Our students have to go through old English writers and outdated and archaic modes of writing, which are of no use these days. Prof. Mohan rightly says in this regard, "The teaching of English literature in our universities and colleges is not at all satisfactory. We are still largely continuing with outmoded syllabuses, modeled after the English syllabus in the British universities in the 19th century which seek to cover the whole range of English Literature from Cancer or perhaps even cashier to the modern period, without considering whether all this is relevant for the realization of the objectives that we have in the view......"
The existing syllabuses in various universities, were really designed by the Britishers to teach the uncivilized, barbaric Indians whose literature was not worth reading.
When we have so much to talk about and to be proud of, why should our students be exposed to an exhaustive British literature most of which they cannot enjoy and appreciate due to the cultural and linguistic variations. The writer has no malign intentions against British Literature.
And we have continuously been following the same syllabuses after making some slight changes, even after 6 decades of the independence. It is a matter of shame that we stick to and brag about the syllabus which was formulated to 'civilize' the 'barbaric Indians'.
As Prof. Gokak says, "the teaching of English is in a chaotic state today". There is a dire need to make wholesale changes in our syllabuses, unless the existing syllabuses both at the UG and the PG levels are revised and made more functional and relevant, the condition of English, which is bad enough already, will become worse.
Note : The attached syllabus can be a model for teaching English at the university level. It is adopted in
I The Use of English II The Use of English III Literature for Human Values IV Communication Skills
SEMESTER – II
I Introduction to Modern Linguistics II Communication Skills III Literature for Human Values IV Landmarks in Literature
I Career Communication II Modern Literature - I III Modern Literature - II IV Translation Theory and Practice (AN Introduction)
I English Language Teaching II English Language Teaching III Literary Interpretation IV Dissertation
GLOBALIZATION OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Dr. Sudesh Sharma
Lecturer, Govt IASE,
Globalization means "to make global, that is world wide a watch not only for
Philosophy of Indian Education : A guru is the person who shows the right path to students and students make him/her a role model or ideal for their life. The destiny of the nation is shaped by guru in class-room.
"We can not always build the future of our youth
But we can always build youth for our nation."
The globe is slowly moving towards the historical movement of transition to 21st century and education is seen as the most crucial to face the challenges of daily life like to face competition, establish new connections, update knowledge etc.
Globalization intends to integrate the Indian education with the world educational approach. But practically it is seen that minority of people who are capable of finding their ways successfully about this new world (roles of Global education and structures of international organization)
Need to channel energy and willingness : Globalization of Indian education presents both prospects. The pros and cons of the issues and their implications. We need to attract foreign educationist to compete the world. Our infrastructure should not succumb to pressure against the soul of Indian culture due to liberalization and globalization. So we need to follow the right path to channel energy and willingness to face the change.
The principal objective of education has been the development of the whole individual. The minimum level of education that was necessary to achieve this goal in the agrarian society was primary and in the industrial age, secondary. In the present borderless information society, education needs to be able to respond to additional demands of a rapidly globalizing world by raising awareness of environment, peace, cultural and social diversity, increased competitiveness, and the concept of a global village. Such education is to a knowledge or information society what secondary education was to an industrial economy. Education prepares the individual to connect - and live in harmony - with the environment around him. Globalization has changed the size, nature and quality of that environment. The challenge for education, therefore, is to reform, create and develop systems that prepare the individual to work in a border less economy and live in a global society. In other words, our educational institutions need to produce global citizens.
Planning a Lesson in English Teaching
Sugandha Behal, Lecturer
G. V. College of Education (CTE), Sangaria (Rajasthan)
We know that every successful task is based on the effective planning. As teaching is a very difficult task so it is also based on the pre- plan. For fruitful and effective teaching planning is the first and most important step. The teacher should know how to teach? What to teach? How to correlate his lesson to the social and physical environment of his pupils? He should also know how to introduce his lesson? How to use teaching aids? And how to evaluate in the light of objectives decided?
‘A lesson plan’ is actually a plan of action. A lesson is a logical step in a series of psychological experience as well as a logical segment of the subject matter to be taught. The teacher is not only an artist but he is also a scientist for he knows how language works, whereas language is not aware of it.
Advantages of Planning a Lesson
There are many advantages of planning a lesson. Some of them we can sum up in the following points-
Pre-requisites for Effective Lesson Planning
Language & its characteristics
Aparna Singh Yadav
Asst. Prof L.M.T.T. Dabok [CTE]
Language is a very important means of communication. It is very difficult to think of a society without language. Language has been instrumental in bringing people into class co-operation and unity. The term ‘language’ can be understood better in term of its characteristics.
Language has a character of universality. We express our feelings and thought through it. According to Gray language may be regarded as, “any means of expressive emotional and mental concepts by any living being or being whatsoever and communicating them to or receiving them from other living being.”
Language is arbitrary, if language had not been arbitrary, there would have been only one language. Because of this arbitrary nature of language, changes may occur.
Language is a symbol system. A symbol is a concrete event. For example,
MANAGING A SMALL CLASS
Chief Resource Person, DC for ELT, Baripada, Odisha
A teacher is a manager. He has to manage different resources to bring out the best in the learners. In
· As most of the teachers are habituated of teaching large classes or classes of average size, a smaller class discourages them to teach. It becomes difficult to maintain the working spirit in the class. The teacher’s involvement, preparation and enjoyment go down.
· In a small class elicitation of ideas from learners becomes difficult. So activities like brain-storming get spoilt.
· In a large heterogeneous class there would learners of different aptitude, intelligence etc. In such a class the teacher would be able to use learners for different purposes of teaching.
· There will be less numbers of groups and small groups in a small class. So there will be less varieties of products and less scope for analysis for learning.
· Peer-learning would be less and the teacher input will increase in such a class which is not at all desirable.
· The teacher in a CLT classroom is a facilitator not the controller. His role is create interaction between the learner and the learning point. But in a small class it would be difficult to withdraw himself and so he will be highlighted.
· In a small class the teacher has good opportunity to understand each learner, which is the first need of good teacher-learner relationship.
· The teacher can interact a lot with each learner both inside and outside the classroom, which will facilitate better learning.
· The teacher will not have to speak loudly in a small class. So he can work for a long time and will not get exhausted.
· Any instruction given in the class would reach every student in the class, which usually does not happen in a large class.
· The shy learners would feel secured in a small class and proper care can be taken of them.
· Correction of written work and giving feedback is quite easier in a small class.
· In a small class there is no need of speaking at a loud voice. It would make his speech soft and sweet. A soft and sweet voice is certainly friendly.
· While doing group work the teacher should be very careful to form groups of 3 or 4. Care should be taken to distribute the varieties of learners in each group.
· In the whole class mode of teaching the teacher should be one among the learners. He should give triggering ideas to the class when necessary.
· The teacher should give more think-time to the learners.
· The ideas coming from the learners should be thrown back to them with little addition.
This discussion can go ahead if you add to it from your experience. We can make the learning joyful in a small class only if we think of ne solutions. Happy teaching.
ON THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH
G. SRINIVASA RAO, Resource Person, DCE,
We have at least three different contexts of English Teaching in
The first category schools are in a position to deliver goods, thanks to the background of learners, environment and of course the teachers. The learners acquire the language skills and are able to communicate effectiveness. In second and third category schools, teaching of English is considered to be challenging. There is another problem to look into. Teaching of English is equated to the teaching of content subjects i.e., Mathematics, Sciences and Social Sciences in Medium trap English – The English Medium. The very process of teaching English is understood in a different manner. What does Language teaching entail? Have we understood the dynamics of language learning ?
Language teaching is not teaching some content. Teaching or helping the learners acquire / learn the target language skills along with the grammar, vocabulary and phonology. For doing this, we have different approaches, methods and techniques. The teachers are specially trained in teaching the target language (English). The question of early introduction of language (At the primary level) and doing the same at a later stage (at the secondary level ) has two different versions. One being that the children who are exposed to language at an earlier stage are good in fluency and pronunciation. The other, however, is that the children who learn language at a later stage are good in the areas of syntax and vocabulary. As far as we are scientific in our outlook and practice, and we view language learning as language learning, there is no danger.
But there is one danger if we are ‘trapped’ by the medium concept. Learning unknown concepts through a language known to us is compatible to child’s world, imagination and concept formation. The child is not alienated from his own world (Society) that supports him in concept formation as long as the child learns with the help of his own language. Learning unknown things through unknown language is paradoxical. That is where the validity of English as a medium comes under scrutiny.
The situation, however , is grave in the case of rural and semi urban areas. There are many limitations to the children living in rural and semi urban areas. The children use only their mother tongue at home. No other person uses English at home. Another limitation is that the teachers are not in a position to express their inner most feelings as they are in the case of the mother tongue – i.e., Hindi or Rajasthani. The teacher can’t use the most natural expressions (Idiomatic expressions) in English.
At this juncture, we, the English Teachers in
STORIES IN THE ESL CLASSROOM
C. Neeraja Reddy, Chief Resource Person, DCE, DIET,
Story is an important form of Literature. Lessons in the form of stories are effective means of instruction to the children. Morals can be easily conveyed to the children through stories. Story sessions are interesting to the teachers and the student. Story is all time favourite to all age groups.
- Teaching through stories is one of the oldest and most effective ways of teaching.
- Story telling is an essential part of early language teaching.
- By reading stories, learners have an experience with the real language of personal communication. They also learn about the cultures of the world.
- The story session helps our learners exchange their feelings.
- Finding the right story is important. The stories we use in the classroom should:
-be interesting and appropriate for young learners.
- have a simple structure.
-be well narrated.
-not have too many new words and structures.
- The teacher may have to simplify stories to make them easy for our children to understand. She should provide clues that help them sense the structure of the story and understand the meaning of the story.
- Until learners learn to read on their own, the teachers read to guide them in understanding the meaning of the story. By guiding the learner we mean sharing strategies to make sense of stories.
Tips to teach stories :-
(a) Before starting the story let the children be motivated through a guessing game. e.g. If the story is about a dog. Let's introduce this:-
I am good friends of kids.
I am bit lazy during day.
I am very active at night.
Guess-------------Who am I?
(b) Use pictures of the story as trigger, to evoke curiosity among the students.
2. Title of the story:-
(a) Write one part of the title and leave the next part of the title for the students. e.g. A peacock's _________ ( tale/ tail )
A ___________ dog.( stupid/ clever )
(b) Read out a paragraph from the story and ask the students to guess the title.
3. Introduce a game- BINGO
Ask the students to draw a grid with nine boxes and ask them to write the expected prepositions/adjectives/adverbs that are going to appear in the first two paragraph of the story.
Read the paragraph of the story and ask the students to cross the correct words in their grid. The students who complete the grid will call out BINGO. He is declared winner.
4. Make stories open ended:-
Don't give the concluding part of the story. Encourage students to guess the ending.
Thought process increases. Language is generated.
5. After completing the story:-
-Encourage students to role play the important characters of the story.
-Jumble the sequence of the story and ask the students to rearrange in the correct
- Ask the students to reproduce the story by using web graph.
Huge Stupid Lazy
My Dog Marcus
Pretends Walk Fool
- Involve the students in narrating collaborative story in the class room. Let the teacher begin the story by giving the first sentence. The students add their own sentences and complete the story.
- We need to include activities like drawing, painting, cutting and pasting etc. in the story session.
- There should be a lot of physical movement in the class.
- If possible, ask the students to construct a parallel story in their own words.
To make our story telling interesting and useful to our learners, the teacher needs to:
-create the atmosphere by using an object or a picture in the story or light a candle to indicate the beginning of the story session.
-show enthusiasm excitement and enjoyment.
-speak audibly, in a pleasant, intimate, smooth, low-pitched tone of voice.
-use appropriate gestures and facial expressions.
F Martin Pedersen (1995) - Story Telling and the Art of teaching.
Natasha Malinka (1995) - Story Telling in Early Language.
Teaching Forum (33).
12-day Refresher Course to Tutors/Chief Tutors, from 1-12 Feb. 2010 at
FIVE ATTITUDES OF LIFE
Chief Resource Person, District Centre for English, Kohima, Nagaland
The happiness of our life depends on the quality of our thoughts- our attitude. “All that we are, is the result of what we have thought.’- Buddha.
“What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us.” -Oliver Wendell Holmes
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE SKILLS AND CLASSROOM INTERACTION
Resource Resource Person, District Centre for English
Everything we do in classroom is determined by the view we hold on the nature of language , and by the method deemed appropriate to teach language more effectively. It has been accepted that language is more than simply a system of rules. It is rather a social dynamic resource for the creation of meaning and communication, that is, the interaction between two or several parts.
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE WITH
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE WITH LISTENING
The development of listening skills in increasingly becoming an urgent need in the communicative teaching method. In our everyday life, we do a lot of listening to serve different purposes, each of which required a different listening strategy. We may need to listen for a specific detail, for gist, for comprehension or listen to correct mistakes. It follows that learners should be exposed to a variety of listening materials and be encouraged to employ various listening strategies to achieve various purposes.
Sometimes, a new linguistic item is introduced through a listening passage. Thus, the learner’s attention should astutely be directed to detect it and pick it out from the context in which it occurs. This can be carried out through different techniques such as sentence completion, multiple choice, information transfer or any other technique the teacher thinks appropriate.
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE WITH SPEAKING
Speaking is obviously the most effective communicative skill as it involves two or more participants in a conversation or a debate or any other speaking activity. The participants interact with a view to convey a message, fulfill a certain objective or function. Undoubtedly, speaking, as a task, is very much challenging and demanding as language itself is highly unpredictable. That is, in a genuine conversation, the participants cannot be certain about or even comfortably anticipate what their counterparts would come up with. Hence they need to have a quick mind and ready tongue to be able to converse fluently and confidently, not losing face , fumbling for words and expressions.
As far as classroom practices are concerned, the teacher has to present the participants with a clear, meaningful context, better still if the teacher could devise a situation where the learners are required to generate different grammatical structures with the related language with logical inter relation. Speaking is one among the most reliable activity to assess the learners’ linguistic competence in terms of appropriateness and accuracy.
INTEGRATING LANGUAGE WITH WRITING
Unlike reading, listening, and speaking where the learner is given a relatively short time to reflect and respond, writing allows the learner a chance to go over what he has written. Perhaps that’s why writing is more demanding thus requiring more time for reflection. Similarly it requires a certain amount of correctness, cohesion and coherence. Therefore the questions or the teacher’s instructions should be clear enough.
At the non-productive stage, the student can be given jumbled words/sentences to reorder/ or to correct faulty sentences. Finally, it should be pointed out that a writing task is an opportunity to keep the learner in contact with language, that the task should be manageable and not frustrating. Similarly, feedback/correction should be immediate and well cared for.
It is very important, under the modern teaching method that learners interact and learn in a cooperative way. The language that the learner produces, however little it may be, matters a lot in the process of learning. From a psychological perspective, the learner who manages to come up with acceptable linguistic utterances that meet the teacher’s satisfaction is swept by an untold happiness, which will have a positive impact on his motivation and willingness to learn. Students, whatever their learning styles are need to interact in pairs or in groups to satisfy their communicative need.
Role play is one of the best and reliable means to involve the students in oral interaction. It is an excellent technique for teaching both grammar and vocabulary, for it helps the learners display and practice whatever they have acquired in the language. Besides, role plays are very motivating activities in that they allow the learners to become active participants in meaningful situations very likely to be encountered in real life. Role play can be defined as an individual, spontaneous behaviour in reaction to others in a hypothetical situation. To carry out this activity successfully, the learner must have a clear view of the situation in focus. According to Rosen Weigh, Role Playing is “the dramatization of real life situations in which the students assume roles”. Role play is based on unpredictability, which is characteristic to the communicative approach. This factor allows room for the spontaneous, creative use of language. Most importantly, role play helps the learners make a connection between grammar and vocabulary on the one hand and between speaking, pronunciation and listening on the other which are the co-existing components in any given verbal components.
Games are ideal activities for communicative practice of language. The most frequent and popular game that can be easily played in class are ‘Bingo’ where the teacher reads out sentences and students identify them on the whole.
Songs are much like games in nature and effect, in that they provide a rich resourceful context for language practice. Moreover, it increases the learner’s unconscious attention to the lesson as well as the motivation. Furthermore, songs serve to bring the learners to a desired efficiency in the listening skills. However, songs should be thoughtfully chosen and appropriately sung. Taking into consideration, the teaching objectives, the learners age and needs.
To sum up, we can say that all this wealth of realia, various teaching techniques however reliable and effective in nature might fall short of good sense of benevolence if the material chosen to be presented is incongruous with the teaching techniques or the desired objectives. Therefore, the teaching materials should be chosen with tremendous care and consideration.
It is high time we looked for these stumbling blocks impeding successful teaching.
A Review of a Study Developing Language Learning Strategies and Learner Autonomy Through Weblogs : A Thesis by Kiran Chauhan
Reviewed by Kajal Rao
Resource Person, District Centre for English, Anand, Gujrat
the researcher has discussed how blogging supports to develop language learning strategies freely in learners . The target group includes 37 learners of second year Post graduation in English (ELT},H.M.Patel
In his background of this thesis the researcher has emphasized what are these terms-Strategy, ESL, Blogging, Autonomy stand for, and he attempted to search as many meanings as possible from various sources, that gave a very clear cut idea to the readers of a very common background to understand that what this thesis is all about. I could work out Through his description that Strategies are basically steps taken by learners to develop their own language learning . These steps are used by learners to comprehend, to use information ,to recall in learning. While ESL as we know stands for English as a second language and we all are involved in this teaching learning process not as native speakers of it but as second language learners. Blog is an online journal(write up) that an individual can write, develop, modify constantly with his own ideas ,send it to the group and can have feed backs from a group. This is an online(e written communication) written communication. Autonomy is a self directed learning which includes learners' ability to shoulder responsibility for his/her learning.
The research questions for this study are as following:
1 What type of language learning strategies are adopted by ESL learners?
2 How does blogging play a role in developing language learning strategies?
3 Can blogging initiate autonomy?
4 Is blogging related to extrinsic ( from outside) motivational factor and can it take a role of intrinsic(inner) motivation?
5 does blogging give an opportunity to use language independently?
6 Is blogging capable of developing meta cognitive strategies like monitoring and critical reflection?
7 How does language learning strategies increase autonomy?
8 Can conscious use of language learning strategies support learners to use language skills out of the class room?
9 Are these strategies used by good learners are applicable to all type of learners all the time?
10 Does blogging allow a room for group interaction and support interdependence?
11 Can blogging lead the learners to develop their language skills autonomously?
Is blogging developing a collaborative approach in learners?
The researcher has sort out some objectives for his research and they are as following:
I would like to focus on some of them:
1 To identify the range of learning strategies used by post graduate students by considering English as a second language.
2 To examine the role of blogging in language learning strategies.
3 To analyze the effect blogging on meta cognitive strategies employed by the learners
Methodology of the Research:
The researcher has applied quantitative such as applying adopted version of SILL, Blog questionnaire ,a kind of survey and qualitative methods such as reflective reports and students interviews.
Limitations of the research:
The researcher has clearly shown that the study examines the language learning strategies and learner autonomy through web-logs of post graduate students of English and it can not be generalized for all the post graduate students.
Tools for the study:
The researcher has utilized a set of tools .One of them is a strategy Inventory for Language Learning(SILL) which contains 47 statements and the learner has to show in which category he fits in. The next one was weblog questionnaire , other tools were reflective reports and journals in which a step wise summary was given to students before they started the blog programme then the interviews were conducted as part of the process.
The learners were guided to create the blogs and they were informed to submit them to the project coordinator. The data was collected and analised statistically which contributes following findings:
1 Blog assisted language learning plays an active role in learner autonomy by developing their language and cognitive skills.
2 Blogging has a capacity to lead the learners from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation.
3 Blogging supports not only writing skill but also reading skill,analytical skill.
Thus the researcher could get positive result of the research and research questions were solved .
1 it is useful research thesis that high lights the benefits of using web logs for developing language learning strategies and learner autonomy but that is limited to the learners who know computer skills very well. In our context we hardly have daily users of computers in all the institutes.All the institutes do not have well equipped computer labs,if they have lab they do not have experts to operate it.More over computer skills are not part of our syllabus as far as language learning is concerned.
2 the blog audience is a very limited audience in our context as we still prefer to read books.
3 The authenticity of the blog may have surety but people can question it any time.
4still prefer to read and write actively and not working on computer that does not allow them to have reflective face to face interaction so blogs may not work actively for them
5 Blogging is time consuming, costly activity that is dependent on network so even a single technical error may not allow the blog to open up
Resolving Dilemma of effective writing
Ankita Vardhan, Research Scholar, Mascat (
Whether you’re aspiring to be a creative student or genuine writer with something to say effectively, theme writing is the right and initiative approach. With few careful steps our keen students can accomplish this great task. With practice, and a passion for writing they can be every bit moving and memorable. Now the need is to imbibe following pieces of advice.
First, read plenty of articles. Nothing can help you “learn” how to write a good theme better than reading good articles. Choose different articles that you enjoy, and also characters, write dialogue, and structure of their thought and sentences. Gather ideas from you attentive reaching. Inspiration can strike at any time, so develop a habit to write do the formative ideas as they came to you. Most of the time, you’ll just think of small snippets of information but sometimes you’ll get lucky and a whole story will rives itself to you in a couple of minutes.
Second, Choose an idea and flesh it out At the very least, a theme writing should have three perceptible parts –beginning, middle and an end Develop a conflict a resolution – a satisfying ending of the theme in which central conflict is resolved.
As you write your theme – writing, you may want to turn your thoughts in different direction than you had planned, or you may want to substantially change or remove a thought. Listen to your mind or soul if it tells you to do something different, and don’t worry about scrapping your plains altogether if you can make a better theme – writing as you go.
Now, Revise and edit when you’ve finished the story, go back through it and correct mechanical mistake as well as logical and semantic errors. Try to get some second opinions and suggestions you feel are valid your writing will be better if you can carefully consider constructive criticism. No doubt, you need to make the final call.
Keep writing, if you long to be a creative and sensible writer. Sit aside a time to write each and every day, and make it a goal to finish, say a paragraph each day.
Develop your own style. Your unique voice will come through practical. Write, write and write. Use few minutes to prewrite and the last few minutes to revised &edit. The more you write and the more details you give, the better you write.
Thus, you can develop the writing- skills effectively, if you pass and work hard through the different stages- pay attention – as amazing things are happening all around you. Listen – how do people put words together? The more you listen to others, the better writer you will become. Think – then question things. You’ll be surprised how many ides you’ll get that way. Get used to writing – start writing in a diary. These are just a few exercise to keep your creativity flowing. You can enhance them by doing them with your writing friends, too.
Training ELT Teachers through Content Based Instruction (CBI)
So far the view of ELT in Indian context has usually been accompanied by top- down -teacher -fronted classroom that enables to control rather than learning.
In the age of ICT where environment is highly communicative, Content Based Instruction (CBI) may help English language teachers to help their students survive communicatively in such environment.
A variety of communicative approaches are at the teacher’s disposal that enriches learners’ proficiency in English rather than practicing specific language form/points. These approaches and procedures are only as effective as their implementation.
Content based instruction has been defined as “the teaching or information in the language being learned with little of no direct or explicit effort to teach the language itself separately from the content being taught.” (Krahnke, as cited in Richards and Rodgers, 2001, p. 204).
CBI is grounded on the following two central principles –
1. People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information rather than as an end in itself.
2. CBI better reflects learners’ needs for learning a second language.
In recent years CBI has become increasingly popular as a means of developing linguistic ability. It has strong connection to project work. Task based learning (in which appropriate contexts are provided for developing thinking and study skills as well as language and academic concepts for students of different levels of language proficiency) and holistic approach to language instruction, particularly beneficial for the secondary level students.
The focus in CBI is on the topic or the subject matter, i.e. content. The students are focused on learning about something through content. The content can be anything that interests them. It promotes realistic communicative tasks and use extensively authentic resources in the target language.
A teacher may select units on the various themes keeping in view (i) the needs and interest of students (ii) the teacher’s own beliefs and practical knowledge and (iii) the teaching resources at his disposal.
Possible themes for the primary level are as follows:
Family and Home
Possible themes for the secondary level are as follows:.
Interest and Hobbies
Health related issues
The teacher may borrow from other content subject like Mathematics (use data- tables and graph, prepare a budget for trip and report), science (experiment with magnets and report), Social studies (use maps, locate cities and report, construct a time-line of some historic period), etc.
There are a variety of strategies and techniques used in CBI such as cooperative learning, task based or experiential learning, whole language approach, graphic organizers, etc.
Activities in CBI are designed keeping in view the integration of the four language skills (Listening, Talking,
At the elementary level, rhymes, songs, games, stories, etc., can be used for teaching. At the secondary level, resources can be exploited like newspapers and catalogs, radio and T.V. programmes, charts, time-table, restaurant menus, maps, historical documents, novels, tourist broaches, travel guides, CDs and videos, advertisement, the internet, books and dictionaries and what not !
The teachers rely on brain storming, demonstrations, explanations, formal lessons, role-playing, and simulation.
Examples of content based activities –
- Play a word game preferably contextual with the theme studied.
- Study menu card, prepare one and report.
- Use a dictionary to find out meaning of new words.
- Read a newspaper’s sports section and discuss results of favorite teams.
- Improvise a discussion on hotly debated events (local or global).
- Prepare and present a critique of a film.
The teacher may divide the class in groups and assign them some task with a source of information followed by on-the-spot-individual-guidance and facilitation. Then the teacher may have a wrap-up session in the form of individual or group reporting.
In the Indian context ‘what to teach’ is in the hands of the expert. The content available in the text book can also be exploited maximally to promote meaningful learning. For instance, if there is a lesson on some famous personality, students may be asked to read the text and provide required information in the form of a table with specific details like year, major events, characteristics, etc,.
It is demanding yet rewarding on the part of a teacher to integrate desired skills through different activities.
Teachers can develop valuable study skills like summarizing, extracting key information from the text, note taking preparing reports, interpreting and developing cognitive maps etc along with basic language skills that can be transferred to other subjects.
CBI can make learning more interesting and rewarding. Students can use the language to fulfill a real purpose making themselves independent and confident. CBI also provides them access to new concepts through meaningful content. It offers a vehicle for reinforcing academic skills. Although it is challenging to plan and create materials with a balance between language and content, still the results are rewarding and motivating.
THEATRE IN EDUCATION
Nand kishore Dadhich
Lecturer in English,
The term ‘Education’ is a combination of two Latin words:
E + Duco
‘E’ means Inner Qualities
‘Duco’ means is Draw out
In other words, the process by which a teacher draws out inner qualities of children.
Let us know what is learning?
Teacher takes a teaching point and opens it in the classroom through a particular method of teaching. The child receives it. Learning proves to be useless if the involvement of the students is disturbed. Hence, the involvement of the students is a big matter or issue in the process of learning.
This is very unfortunate that no learning exists in our classrooms. The teacher teaches the students a particular topic through a method. He asks students questions. They reply according to whatever they are taught. Do you call it learning? No, not at all, unless the teacher gets self-generated questions from students. It is not called learning. When the student himself generates the questions of his own, it means, learning is taking place, but mostly the Indian classes are teacher-dominated classes where the involvement of the students is reduced to the minimum. Students study in pressure cooker environment; Students unfortunately do not get ample opportunities of interaction. Many a time they are discouraged. The total scenario regarding this is very frustrating in our schools. Hence, no learning exists without the involvement of students.
Now the issue is involvement. Total involvement of the students. The energy level of involvement is increased when the child is learning joyfully. Countless experiments have been made over the years to make the learning joyful. No doubt, the efforts have been made but the results are not satisfactory.
In this series, an effort has been made by N.S.D. to make the learning joyful through its program ‘Theatre in Education’.
It is an activity-centered program. The involvement of the child is increased very much through theatrical activities. Consequently, the learning is full of joy.
When the child reads a lesson, he or she finds it difficult and feels the boredom of reading it but when the same lesson is dramatized and played by the child, he or she finds it rather easier and feels happy. Hence, the learning becomes joyful activity for them and the energy level of involvement is increased. This not only sheds the fear and hitch of students but also instill a sort of confidence in him or her, which he or she can never find through reading of a lesson.
Opulent Natyashastra that is known as the ‘pancham Veda’ is the unique creation of Bharat Muni. It keeps alive our cultural heritage for the succeeding generations. Muni himself explained the ‘Theory of Rasa Nirupan’. There are three types of activities to generate any type of ‘Rasa’.
1. Angik-is related to body movements.
2. Vachik- is related to a better speech.
3. Aharya- activity that is performed through the property is Aharya.
Expected ‘Rasa’ is created through these three types of activities.
Angik, Vachik and Aharya.
The concept of T.I.E. is based on the ‘Theory of Rasa’.
It can prove to be a boon for little kids at lower level. It can facilitate the learning process. It can develop the personality of the students. Hence, T.I.E. in itself is a big concept that is directly related to body movements and a better speech quality. Only and only theatre can dig out the latent talent of the introvert students and make the harmonious development of their personality. Really, it can produce miraculous results in the total scenario of despair and frustration.
ELT and Govt. Schemes
Ranjeet Khileri, Senior Teacher, GSS, Railway Crossing, Bikaner
English as a language is acquiring a status of importance never witnessed before and of indispensability vis-à-vis the modern world scenario, be it social, cultural or economic. The utility and importance of English as a language has been discussed at length at different forums and many a times; that doesn't in any manner mean that review from time to time to update both the methods of teaching and learning is needed.
In a rapidly changing world of 21st century, learning has become hi-tech and complex. Teacher must cater to the needs of a learner to make it simple and interesting by adopting various innovative methods to optimise the use of modern technology. For this purpose to be fully viable in context to
The utility of any programme is vindicated in it success. If it fails to deliver a result oriented end, all the methods, processes, programmes will collapse in their fulfillment of basic aim, which will be very unfortunate. Funds or Finances alone don't deliver results. There has to be a positive will on the part of the participants and organizers equally in order to reap the fruits of a programme. 'RMSA' (Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan) is still in its infancy and must be carefully nurtured to grow strong if it is to deliver proper results. The 'sarva shiksha' programme which was aimed at the upliftment of education in elementary set up, now seems to be focussed much at mid-day meal renovation of school buildings. Though its important too but the emphasis must lie in concrete results on the part of teachers to impart education with a new vision. The results must reflect in the students learning. The success of any government programme/scheme depends on a properly organized implementation of the same. It must be ascertained that students are the most benefited party of a scheme. The scheme must have a strong agenda to fulfil. The timings, place and module of a programme must be in coherence with the needs of both, the learner and the teacher.
For a language to be learnt, participation has to be interaction based. Its seen that only language teachers are trained while the students remain passive learners. Students participation must be actively included in teaching programmes. The use of audio-visual, cultural activities must be encouraged to make it more interesting and successful. Gone are the days when began and ended at 'tenses', with the growing need of 'spoken English' catching importance, there is need of interaction based programmes which must include students as well as the teachers. Learning is incomplete if total student teacher or teacher student participation is lacking.
As has been emphasised by me, the govt. bodies who devise these programmes, must do their home work by surveying the teachers and students in order to get acquainted with their needs or requirements. It will facilitate the teacher and he/she will deliver better and the learner too will reap maximum benefit. Though the programmes and initiatives taken by the govt. are a good step forward in fostering the overall growth of English as a second language in India, much still needs to be doe in the rural schools where a local dialect is all that students interact in, let alone English; it's not even Hindi that enjoys a comfortable acceptance among the students. Hopefully a better and an aggressive teacher-student participation backed up by strong government funded result oriented programmes will enhance the process of growth for ELT in
"The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read or write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn."
FLUENCY : A KEY CONCEPT IN ELT
Speaking any language smoothly and intelligibly needs fluency. It is not enough to know a language .Speaking fluently makes the proper use of any language. The term fluency has acquired two rather different meanings in ELT. The first is similar to a typical dictionary entry, for example., ‘fluent’ is defined by OED as ‘able to speak and write a particular language completely and with ease. In this meaning it is restricted to language production, and in ELT it s normally reserved for speech. It is the ability to link units of speech together with facility and without strain of inappropriate slowness or undue hesitation.
Faerch, Haastrup, and Phillipson  include fluency as a component of communicative competence and define it as ‘the speaker”s ability to make use of whatever linguistic and pragmatic competence they have.
They distinguish three types of fluency-
Non- fluency in an English learner is discernible in frequent pauses, repetition, self-correctness and using fillers, as ‘you know;, ‘you see’ , etc.
The first meaning of fluency relates to competence in the learner. Course books in the seventies often contained fluency drills aimed at increasing the learner’s ability to link syntactic segments with ease. For example, the teacher would set up a chain drill and provide each student with a different prompt , in turn which they would have to insert the correct position syntactically, thus getting them acquainted with different structural approaches.
More recently teacher has debated whether it is possible to teach gambits such as fillers, to compensate for fluency.
A second meaning of fluency has developed in relation to the goals of ELT and the nature of class room activity. Brumfit  argues from a definition of fluency as ‘natural language use’ and defines the aim of fluency activity in the class room as to develop a pattern of language interaction within the class room which is as close as possible to that used by competent performers in the mother tongue in normal life. He lists a set of criteria necessary for achieving fluency activity. These have been simultaneously developed and expanded by a number of other writers and can be summarized as follows:
1.The language should be a means to an end. i.e. the focus should be on the meaning and not on the form.
2 The content should be determined by the learner who is speaking or writing.
3 There must be a negotiation of meaning between the speakers, i.e. the learner must be involved in interpreting a meaning from what they hear and constructing what to say ,not reliant on teacher or text book to provide the language.
4. The normal processes of listening , reading , speaking, etc. will be in play. e.g. improvising and paraphrasing in speech.
5. Teacher’intervention to correct the speaker should be minimal as this distracts from the message.
In Brumfit’s view, fluency activities will give students the opportunity to produce and understand items of language which they learn in focused work or accuracy work. It is significant that his definition of fluency covers all of the language skills. His suggestions for creating natural language use in the classroom include creative writing ,class, libraries, and project work.
The Role of Project Work in Fluency Under ELT.
A project is an extended task which usually integrates language skills through a number of activities . These activities combine in working towards an agreed goal and may include planning and gathering of information through reading ,listening, interviewing, etc., discussion of the information, problem solving, oral or written reporting and display.
Projects usually involve a number of features which are as follows:
Project- based reading has been promoted within ELT for a number of reasons. Learners’ use of language as they negotiate plans, analyse and discuss information and ideas is determined by genuine communicative needs .At the school level project work encourages, imagination and creativity, and cross-curricular work through exploitation of knowledge gained in other subject. Successfulness use of project work will clearly be affected by such factors as availability of time , access to authentic materials , receptiveness of learners, the possibilities for learner training , and ;the administrative flexibility of institutional timetabling.
English Teaching: A Herculean Task in
RAKESH KUMAR CHOTIA
Sr. Teacher (English)
GSS, RAJPURA PIPERAN (SURATGARH)
It would not be an exaggeration to say that teaching of English in rural areas is no less than a Herculean task. There are many factors that hinder the process of English teaching, such as the problems of translation, the diversity in pronunciation, the difference in pattern etc.
Translation means the finding out of linguistic equivalents between the source language and the target language. It is a complex process as to find the exact equivalent at all linguistic levels is quite impossible. For example, the Hindi word ‘namaste’ has no exact equivalent in English, though the English expressions like Good morning, Good afternoon, Good evening and Good night serve the purpose. Similarly, to translate the Hindi sentence “Dinesh se mil ker mera dil bag bag ho
In Hindi we pronounce the word as it is written because we have got the same number of vowel and consonant sounds as that of the letters. On the other hand, in English we have just 26 letters but as far concerned the sounds, these are 44 in number. That is why the learners fail to speak the words like put and but, chin and chemistry, blood and moon etc. correctly.
Secondly, General Indian English lacks the sound /z /. It is generally replaced by sound /s/ or /z/ as in the case of vision, measure, pleasure etc. Sometimes the speakers of General Indian English do not find difference between the sounds /v/ and /w/.Most speakers replace both sounds by /v/ and as a result of it the contrast between vine and wine, veil and wail, vest and west is lost.
In most of our languages such as-Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati etc we have got SOV pattern. For example, Ram pustak pad raha hai. But in English there is SVO pattern. So the same sentence will be written as-Ram is reading a book. Due to this difference in pattern the Indian learners face difficulty in learning English.
Thus, these are some of the main factors that lead to partial learning. To cope with these problems we require well trained efficient teachers of English. The teacher training programmes especially for the teachers of English are greatly required as these programmes provide us the opportunity to make us familiar with the innovative things, new techniques and modern trends in English. ____________________________________________________________________________
Mohd. Sadik Panwar, Senior Teacher, GSS, Id-gah-bari, Bikaner
One day all the employees reached the office and they saw a big advice on the door on which it was written: “Yesterday the person who has been hindering your growth in this company passed away. We invite you to join the funeral in the room that has been prepared the gym”. In the beginning, they all got sad for the death of one of their colleagues, but after a while they started getting curious to know who was hindered the growth of his colleagues and the company itself. The excitement in the gym was such that security agents were ordered to control the crowd within the room. The more people reached the coffin, the more excitement heated up. Everyone thought: “Who is this guy who was hindering my progress ? Well, at least he died !”.
One by one the thrilled employees got closer to the coffin, and when they looked inside it they suddenly became speechless. They stood nearby the coffin, shocked and in silence, as if someone had touched the deepest part of their soul. There was a mirror inside the coffin: everyone who looked inside it could see himself. There was also a sign next to the mirror that said: “There is only one person who is capable to set limits to your growth: It is YOU. You are the only person who can revolutionize your life. You are the only person who can influence your happiness, your realization and your success. You are the only person who can help yourself.
Your life does not change when your boss changes, when your friends change, when your parent change, when your partner changes, when your company changes. Your life changes when YOU change, when you go beyond your limiting beliefs, when you realize that your are they only one responsible for your life. “The most important relationship you can have, is the one you have with
yourself” Examine yourself, watch yourself. Don’t be afraid of difficulties, impossibilities and losses: be a winner, build yourself and your reality. The world is like a mirror: It gives back to anyone the reflection of the thoughts in which one has strongly believed. The world and your reality are like mirrors laying in a coffin, which show to any individual the death of his divine cap! ability to imagine and create his happiness and his success. It’s the way you face Life that makes the difference Have a nice week!
The Communicative Approach : A Real-life Communication
Mrs Poonam Yadav
Senior Teacher, GGSSS, Raghunathsar kuan,
English is basically an international language of people who do not speak as a mother tongue. So, it's not uncommon around the world for people to speak English if they want to communicate with someone not from their country. It is also the dominant language in many fields, such as business, science, entertainment, radio, and diplomacy. One of the most challenging tasks constantly facing language teachers is how to capture the interest and to stimulate the imagination of their students so that they will be more motivated to learn.
How to provide opportunities in the classroom for their students to engage in real-life communication in the target language? Questions to be dealt with include what the communicative approach is, where it came from, and how teachers' and students' roles differ from the roles they play in other teaching approaches. The communicative approach could be said to be the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audio-lingual and grammar-translation methods of foreign language instruction.
They felt that students were not learning enough realistic, whole language. They did not know how to communicate using appropriate social language, gestures, or expressions; in brief, they were at a loss to communicate in the culture of the language studied. Authentic language use and classroom exchanges where students engaged in real communication with one another became quite popular. Authentic materials as spoken or written language data that has been produced in the course of genuine
communication, and not specifically written for purposes of language teaching.
In fact, in communicative teaching the teacher encourages his students to bring into the classroom their own samples of authentic language data from _real-world contexts outside of the classroom. They
practice listening to and reading genuine language drawn from many different sources, including TV and radio broadcasts, taped conversations, meetings, talks, and announcements. They also read magazine stories, hotel brochures, airport notices, bank instructions, advertisements and a wide range of other written messages from the real world.
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING
Communicative language teaching makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Unlike the audio-lingual method of language teaching, which relies on repetition and drills, the communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will vary according to their reactions and responses. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. Language is interaction; it is interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society. In this light, language study has to look at the use (function) of language in context, both its linguistic context (what is uttered before and after a given piece of discourse) and its social, or situational, context (who is speaking, what their social roles are, why they have come together to speak.
Instructions to students
Listen to a conversation somewhere in a public place and be prepared to answer, in the target language, some general questions about what was said.
1. Who was talking?
2. About how old were they?
3. Where were they when you eavesdropped?
4. What were they talking about?
5. What did they say?
6. Did they become aware that you were listening to them?
The exercise puts students in a real-world listening situation where they must report information overheard. Most likely they have an opinion of the topic, and a class discussion could follow, in the target language, about their experiences and viewpoints. Communicative exercises motivate the students by treating topics of their choice, at an appropriately challenging level.
THE ROLES OF THE TEACHER AND STUDENTS
Teachers in communicative classrooms will find themselves talking less and listening more--becoming active facilitators of their students' learning. The teacher sets up the exercise, but because the students' performance is the goal, the teacher must step back and observe, sometimes acting as referee or monitor. A classroom during a communicative activity is far from quiet, however. The students do most of the speaking, and frequently the scene of a classroom during a communicative exercise is active, with students leaving their seats to complete a task.
Because of the increased responsibility to participate, students may find they gain confidence in using the target language in general. Students are more responsible managers of their own learning
APPROACHES AND METHODS OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH
Rajendra Prasad Lecturer in English
Govt. Sr. Sec. School Jaitsar, Sri Ganganagar
A method is a tool. In the term of getting the students working together and motivating them, the teacher is the most important. However, a teacher should acquaint with the methods of teaching a language. Some of the approaches and methods are listed here :
Grammar translation method
This method was prevalent in schools throughout the beginning of the 20th century; its use continued long afterwards and many cultures still expect language to be taught using this method. The method consists of studying written texts, translating them into the students’ own language and carrying out a study of grammar. There is little attention given to the use of the spoken language.
This method grew out of behaviourist psychology. It involves providing a stimulus to which students respond; if the response is correct, the students are praised in order to reinforce the correct use of language and ultimately to reinforce learning. Language is presented in a very controlled way; i.e. one language point at a time is studied and worked on. Grammar explanations are kept to a minimum and progress is made through repetition. In a typical lesson, the teacher might show pictures of people in various situations. Oral prompts can also be given and students are invited to make sentences with the prompts. When students have mastered the structure, the teacher might present the question form by showing different picture. Lessons in this approach are very predictable but at lower levels they provide a familiar environment where students at least get the chance to produce the phrase orally and correctly.
This approach developed out of a need to have students communicating for real. It is based on the theory that children acquire language rules by using language rather than through the study of grammar. It involves creating situations where the students have a genuine need to say something, just as children do. The communicative approach often refers to speaking activities; however the other skills can also be practised in a communicative way. The essential element is to ensure that there is a reason for carrying out the task other than just practicing language.
PPP stands for presentation, practice, and production. Presentation involves, as the name suggests, presenting a language point. This is usually done by the teacher. Presentation might be similar to the audio-lingual approach through the use of pictures and focused learning. It can also be achieved through explanation and demonstration. Practice refers to controlled practice; it involves students using the target language in a controlled way. This might involve drills, controlled written and speaking activities, and repetition. Production refers to freer practice; students use the target language in sentences of their own. They might also combine it with other language they know.
In a task-based lesson, the teacher sets a task for students to do that involves the use of language not yet studied in class or language studied previously that the teacher wishes to revise. The language point chosen is known as target language. The task might be an activity from the course book that was intended as practice of a language point or an activity from a supplementary source. The teacher sets up the task and observes students as they get on with it. The teacher pays particular attention to the students’ performance with the target language. The teacher should note down errors but not correct them during the activity. The decision is made according to performance on the task. This can then be followed up with a repetition of the original activity or one that is similar.
ESA stands for engage – study – activate. Engage involves getting the students’ attention or interest, getting them involved. If students are involved or engaged, they are more open to the learning process. Study as the name suggests involves focus on a language point. This could be grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation or how a written text is organised. Activating involves having students use the language, preferably in a realistic context.
The involvement of the whole person in the learning experience is central to the humanistic approach. Activities are used that involve students talking about their feelings and experiences. Students may be involved in fixing the aims for the course or for one lesson. A teacher may enter the classroom with no plan and just ask students what they want to do that day and the teacher goes with the flow .
The principle of this method is that grammar and vocabulary cannot be strictly divided as is often the case in traditional teaching methods. Language is made up of lexical items using grammar to support them rather than being made up of grammatical structures incorporating lexis. Lexical items are words or chunks of words, which have their own meaning. The syllabus is organized according to collocation. Collocation refers to words that are frequently used together, i.e. make a phone call, make an appointment, heavy rain, by accident.
There are other approaches to teaching also. A teacher should choose the method according to the level of learners and his own ability to use method. It is also true that a teacher can't abide by a particular method through out the period. A teacher should look at the course book s/he about to use and see what method is appropriate for the particular lesson and for the particular level or group of the students.
Effective English Communication (EEC) in Classrooms
Lecturer in English, GSSS, Barsinghsar,
Language is not a system of unchanging rigid rules; it is a medium of communication. Therefore, learning a language is internalizing the processes of communication, of negotiating meanings through sustained interpersonal interactions, of developing skills for performing various roles and carrying out various tasks in different situations. English has been gaining more and more impetus at the national and international level during the last decade. Teachers who have an awareness of the skills and the communicative competencies involved in 'Knowing' a language, who are aware of the advances in the of the field language learning and teaching and who can modify the relevant insights and approaches into their classroom transactions can serve as a key for bringing out the effective communication. In ELT classroom, the 'English – Environment' is the primary requirement. Second step is the ease to speak English. It is rightly said, "Complete ease in spoken English can confer complete ease in written English". Effective communication, Environment and presentation are very closely inter-related. They are complementary to each other. Proper classroom environment, Teacher- student interaction, discussion among friends and with family members in English in a controlled and pre-guided manner initially with the use of limited number of sentence proceeds for a better environment. Presentation involves the knowledge and application of various grammatical aspects such as the use of simple structures, conversion of sentences from one form to another. Besides it, the colloquial words usage and it’s linking with English serves for memorizing of the language. Use of lingua-labs for effective pronunciation as well as generating perfect communication skills is also a proper means to develop in children a sense of healthy competition, to ex-change views and information.Effective Communication
Tr- Stu . Interaction Phonetics
Group Interaction Use of Simple Structures
Family Interaction Grammatical aspects
This corresponds with the use of vocabulary (both active and passive), structural approach for making sentences, phonetics, pronunciation drills, conversational exercises. All these are fruitful only when the learners are motivated and are curious enough to 'know more'.
Besides it, an innovation can be made by self preparation of 'English clubs' in schools. These help children to develop English friendly environment and feel at ease. It also encourages pupils to take co-operative enterprise and initiative in learning English as their learning of structures, patterns and vocabulary in use is enhanced. It may also include solo and group activities, English- speaking with application to life- situations, co-relation with social and physical environment.
In short, we can say that effective English communication (EEC) needs a perseverant attitude together with innovations and above all its proper application to the real – life situations.
THE SOUND USED IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Being able to read, understand, write and speak good English are vital and fundamental skills that underpin success in exams and ultimately, success in the world beyond school. There are 26 letters (A to z) and 44 sounds in the English language. Vowels in English- (a, e, i, o, u).There are 20 distinct vowel sounds-12 pure vowels and 8 diphthongs (joining of two vowels into one).
Consonants+ vowel sound=syllable
A syllable may be composed of a vowel sound alone. Example- eye. Consonants cannot be pronounced unless a vowel sound is joined to them.
Syllable is a small sound unit which combines with other sound units to make words.
Single syllable word – fan, long, chair
Two syllable word – bottle, leader
In an English word of more than one syllable, one of the syllables is pronounced with greater prominence. The syllables that is pronounced more prominently in the same word is said to be stressed or accented. The stressed syllable is uttered louder i.e. with more breath force.
We use ‘c’ to represent the consonant and ‘v’ to represent the vowel sound. Example- Cook – structure is CVC.
Monosyllabic word – come
Disyllable word – pretend (pre-tend)
Tri-syllable word – intention (in-ten-tion)
Say the following words aloud Take Over
Take needs as much breath force and sounds as loud as over .Let us join them
Here the last syllable ‘take’ is the loudest .The middle syllable ver sounds not that loudly ‘O’ is midway. The last syllable receives the PRIMARY stress .the first syllable ‘O’ receives the secondary stress. Middle syllable remains unstressed.
, Over’ take
Primary accent /’/ is marked with a vertical bar above and in front of the syllable to which it refers.
Secondary stress /, / is marked with a vertical bar below and in front if the syllable to which it refers.
Example , Take ‘Over - De ‘cide - , Notifi ‘cation
In a number of disyllabic words stress depends on their use – whether nouns, verbs or adjectives.
The stress is on the first syllable if they are used as nouns/adjectives.
The stress is on the second syllable if they are used as verbs.
, Consent (noun) con’sent (verb)
The auxiliary verbs, determiners, prepositions and conjunctions are not usually stressed.
We breathe when we utter sentences. But pauses or breath cannot be arbitrary. Breath groups and sense groups must coincide. They must be in coordination. This can be done by dividing the longish parts of the sentences into smaller meaningful units.
Content Words and Functions Words
Content words carry the sense .Function words make the sentences grammatically correct.
Function words if removed may or may not affect the clarity of the sentence (meaning).
Removing the content words makes the sentence unintelligible. Stress gives rhythm to language.
Teaching four language skills through reading materials
Senior Teacher, GSSS, Sadul,
It is important to teach each language skill separately, it is more important to teach four language skills combined. The teachers give a lot of emphasis on reading comprehension and grammar. In such a situation, how can English teachers teach English in just a communicative way? How can they teach four language skills combined, using reading materials? Many teachers believe it is quite difficult to teach four language skills using such textbooks, but It depends on their efforts to make use of reading materials effectively with teaching four language skills combined in mind.
Here are some suggestions to teach four language skills effectively using reading materials.
The students should be given chance to read a text (various types - articles, letters, etc) and listen to something related to the topic. The reading and sessions include all stages, i.e. pre, actual and post. Then we finish the lesson with a discussion, role-play and/or game, and sometimes with writing (paragraph, article, advertisement, letter, etc). In this way apart from developing the four skills, a teacher should manage to arise students' interest. And there are occasions on which students do their additional reading in English at home, just because they are interested in the topic. This may be the right formula to teach four language skills effectively using reading materials.
Role of Articulation in learning English language
Bulaki Das Harsha
Before knowing the subject it is our duty to know the way in which we people are trying to learn the subject, as far as teaching is concerned, 'tis very divine job to do because it is the way of spreading civilization and language, teaching is the highest and noblest job in this modern world.
"Listening is the best way of learning."
"To listen is to heal."
Above quotations are the milestones of the level of learning. After knowing/ realizing this thing that listening is essential its our duty to provide our students full series of good audio and video material for their healing. Here 'healing' means the way of purgation through listening good material designed for the betterment of our learners. Normally the term 'heal' comes from the medical field here I would like to draw the attention towards the another meaning of it, that is to make the previous situation of learning better.
The process of listening is totally based on the environment of the class-room otherwise the process of listening will become the futile exercise of 'hear' which is neither healing nor useful. So the speaker or the guide who is the pivot in rendering the knowledge to his students and his learners must make sure that the way in which the speech is being delivered should be up to the mark.
The duty of our creator is over after giving birth to us but the duty of our teacher/guide starts from the very first day of our schooling; so far as my views are concerned we all the people (teachers) who have been selected for this pious and challenging job of teaching should concentrate on the point of articulation.
Our class-room is a mini-world of words, everyday the citizens (words) come and go but some words may stay permanently in our mind because at the time of listening we were very much attentive so these words have got the permanent citizenship of our very mind. It has been a joint-venture of both the attentive and eager students as well as of the committed & devoted teachers.
The ancient way of Indian teaching was entirely based on the method of regular articulation under the guidance of a dedicated master and now many researches have proved that this is the only good way to teach the learners very nicely. That's why many new series of 'English-speaking Courses' are equipped with CD's and cassettes. So something useful should be done for achieving our targets.
What could be done by a good teacher:-
i. Provide ample space to the students.
ii. Good and authentic material should be provided for listening
iii. Spare extra time for interaction and find out some mistakes of articulation.
iv. Material outside the text should be used for it.
At every final minute of the class it should be articulated-
Yes, we can do everything.
The views expressed in the DC Journal do not necessarily reflect the official views of DCS, EFL